No reconciliation is possible between the Berlin Jews and Jew friends [and me], and I will never sit at a table with them. He was dismissed in for his national-socialist activities. Over the years Herr Professor Hertel repeatedly informed me that he had not joined this party. But there could be no doubt about his views. He proved his national-socialist outlook [nationalsozialistische Gesinnung] through voluntary work in the NSV. As he heard in June of this year that the NSV had a shortage of local officers [Blockwarten] he offered his service to this organization and has worked since then as a local officer in the NSV.
In response to a telephone query, the local group East B Leipzig C. All emphasis in the original sources. Carol A. For the sake of completeness, here they are again, complemented by others that we have in the meantime been able to discover: Ludwig Alsdorf, NSDAP No. He and his wife Gertruda likely died on one of the notorious transports to a concentration camp.
Moritz Spitzer — fled to the Palestine. They promise to apply all their strength to tap the values of foreign cultures for the German people and to make them serviceable for our peoplehood. They promise to strive with all their strength to enhance German science for the sake of the salvation of the fatherland [Heil des Vaterlandes]. The following especially speaks for this. The most important transformation that the Indian nation experienced in the course of its history and which led to the formation of Hinduism is convincingly traced back to racial causes and accounted for with the absorbtion of the stream of Aryan immigrants into the aboriginal population.
Indian philosophy thereby enters into a new light and gains greater significance for us too. Not only does it represent the richtest and most important philosophical development outside of Europe; it can also, as the typical creation of an Aryan people, lay a claim to special interest. And when we today consider it as one of the most important tasks of science [Wissenschaft] to establish and work out the intellectual typology [Artbild] of the different peoples and races and above all of the Indo-Germanic peoples, then Indian philosophy in particular with its rich material will be able to contribute valuable [insights].
It was a discipline that, as we saw, critiqued Brahmanism for its perceived injustices. Yet it was no less exclusionary. Although they had studied alongside their Protestant colleagues, even inculcating their anti- Brahmanism, they found they would always be considered less than equals.
Most universities in north Germany followed in the early eighteenth century, with universities in the Rhineland and Bavaria bringing up the rear. From this point onwards—which, however, we cannot as yet historically determine—the character of the Indian cultural development had to gradually change externally. The Brahmans, greedy to secure the dominance they had attained, sought gradually to unite the entire quantum of intelligence in their corporate body and to let the remaining people have a share in it only so far as it was necessary to pursue their immediate life aims—which were strictly delineated and made hereditary by the caste system and, given the existing order concerning mixing of castes, could never be one that led to elevation from the position assigned one, but only to a further degradation.
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Thus gradually by far the greatest proportion of the people was excluded from the common development of Indian cultural life. Literary manifestations, whose vehicle Sanskrit was, withdrew into the groves and huts of the Brahmans and the still vital spirit of the people was repressed and had to throw itself into other pursuits. But if we look more closely, this has almost consistently only happened because the Indian tradition was thrown over board [. Was Benfey aware that he was rehearsing well-worn criticisms of the halakhic tradition?
The reference is to Moses Mendelssohn —86 , the first Jew to move unrestrictedly among the Enlightenment literati. The chapters in Irene A. Diekmann, ed. The social consequences of enhanced scrutiny, which manifested as self-alienation, loss of social cohesion, and self-policing. The pragmatic considerations, which spoke against granting emancipation Jews as a group. Members of the group construed the criteria of belonging to the group overwhelmingly negatively, since their common Jewish heritage primarily signified a burden under the dominant laws.
The ambiguous situation in which Jewish intellectuals found themselves having distanced themselves from their own tradition. At the time Jews entered German culture, the latter had attained an epoch of its greatest development so that art and science absorbed many Jews to the extent that they completely surrendered their own tradition.
Their pursuit of contemporary education was matched on the other side by a tremendous loss of Jewish knowledge. They thus became socially free-floating existences, who sought self-realization increasingly in literary and political activity. See R. Axel Michaels Delhi: Manohar, , — During two years —4 he was Vice-Chancellor of the Bombay University. He then retired, at the age of 55, from Government service. His honorary distinctions include the Honorary Membership of this Society , and of the sister societies in Germany and America ; the Fellowship of the Calcutta University ; the membership of the French Institute; the Hon.
Bhandarkar, vol. The text was originally published as Ramkrishna G. We cite from the reprint edition throughout. Thus the audience would have been composed of both Hindus and Christians and possibly others minorities as well, though this is speculative. We know little of these gatherings, though they appear to have been quite common at one time. Modak S. Modak, Directory of Protestant Indian Christians, vol. This was expressed by the self-conception of most Jews who defined themselves as German citizens of Jewish faith. Yet, along with the absolute desire for integration and a strong national feeling, this designation, with its emphasis on loyalty to ancestral belief, included an element that did not comply with the expectations of the environment.
Brill, , 58— He also addresses the topic in R. It is therefore cite here in full for more examples see n. Should I like that the English had never conquered the country? Under them there was no possibility of our having any idea of the European civilization which I so admire, there was hardly much security of life and property, and there was little possibility of a man travelling from one province to another without being looted. And we should in that case have had no post-office or roads or railways or electric telegraphs or printing presses; and above all, that education which has now opened our eyes to our own defects, and given birth to new aspirations.
And how was it possible that they should not subjugate the country when it was in the lowest state of political degradation, with selfishness reigning supreme, rival competitors for thrones or for power intriguing against each other and asking their aid, and the people at large maintaining their traditional indifference? Would I then wish that the English voluntarily retired from the country—for driving them away was out of the question—and left us to govern ourselves?
For though we talk about public spirit, public duty, nationality, and things of that sort, these ideas have not deeply sunk into our nature. Self-interest is as strong a motive with us as it ever was before. There is a lamentable want of serious thought amongst us. Childishness is rampant everywhere. We are divided into castes and communties [sic] that have not yet learnt to make common cause with each other. We still want that energy and those orderly modes of action, and that power of organization, which are necessary in order that we may progress in civilization; and we shall only lose the ground which we have gained under the British, and shall be unable to form a strong Government; and all the benefits of a higher civilization that we at present enjoy will be lost to us.
I believe it to be an act of Divine Providence that the English alone of all the candidates who appeared about the same time for the empire of India should have succeeded. Neither does a Parsi girl enter upon the married condition until she is mature. It must then be that, because these conditions are wanting in the case of the Hindus, so many of them comparatively are unable to bear the strain which higher education and subsequent active life impose upon them and die off.
The food used by most of our Hindus, if not all, is hardly nourishing, they have no liking for physical exercise, do not know how to enjoy life, and marry very early and the health of their wives is in a shattered condition on account of early maternity. He sees how the people themselves govern the country and their wishes triumph over those of the men above them in the social scale, and conceives a liking for it, aspires after it, and wishes for its introduction into his own country.
But he little knows that such a constitution as that implies masses of men being inspired with certain ideas and moving towards their realization, and to work it certain mental and moral habits are required with it takes hundreds of years to acquire, and certain social arrangements which are the growth of centuries. The English constitution of the present day would not have suited the English of the times of the Wars of the Roses. It did not spring up then. But when the inhabitants of a country are divided into a number of separate communities or castes hostile to each other, national independence can only mean the possession of one community or one caste of power over others, which it must, of course, use for its own benefit and to the detriment of others.
An Indian patriot must recognize the great forces in operation in the world. Asia is being divided among themselves by three great European Powers, and in the contest, from the character and peculiar civilization of its people, Asia is nowhere. We ought to consider ourselves peculiarly fortunate in having fallen into the hands of a nation that has a conscience. England would be ashamed of herself if she held India solely for the purpose of her own aggrandizement. The glories of that Empire he should regard as his glories and its misfortunes to be his misfortunes. We are the inhabitants of Greater Britain, i.
Therein lies our salvation. One may think patriotism requires him to hate foreigners because they are foreigners, to run down their manners, customs, and institutions, to attribute vices to them which they do not possess, and deny their most manifest virtues and all the good that they actually do. This is the patriotism of feeble minds incapable of thought and action.
For if people do not see the good that there is in foreigners, they are incapable of learning; if they do not see their own serious faults and defects and the evil that there is in their manners, customs, and institutions, there can be no improvement, no progress; and the nation must lag behind while others are going on, and must suffer. Even if Bhandarkar was not aware of this exact source, the general direction of his thought is clear.
In the College we are introduced to a civilization and a system of thought which are greatly different from our own. Though incidental, I consider this to be a very important effect of the education we receive. For, unless the evil that there is in our society is in the first place perceived and then removed, there can be no hope that we shall ever rise. On that occasion about 50, native soldiers revolted against the British Government and threw off the authority of their commanding officers.
These soldiers were disciplined by the British. When they were led against powerful native Princes and chiefs, they achieved invariable success. Even if they had been led against a European foe it is not impossible that they would have been similarly successful. But all this they did, disciplined as they were, only when commanded by British Officers. As soon as they freed themselves from their authority, their discipline stood them in no stead, they became a mob, and were cut to pieces by a handful of British soldiers and in some cases even by civilians.
Many Indians cut off from their tradition and seeking validation in a historical narrative of origins came to view the Germans rather than the British as the normative ideal. May not the good qualities we educated people show when in position of power and trust be due to our continuing to be under British influence as much as to our education? And this doubt is strengthened by the manner in which these same educated natives often conduct themselves when employed in native states. When this is the case, it is inevitable that there should he [sic] factions instead of parties, and that personal preferences and animosities should assert themselves and public interests be lost sight of.
As long as such a state of things lasts, representative government would be an evil and not a boon. And I conclude by advising you that before asking for any political privileges, you should impartially examine whether you are fit for it, whether, in fact, there is any probability of your using it to the lasting benefit of your country. Prospectors, adventurers, and the scum of the big cities emigrated to the Dark Continent along with capital from industrially developed countries. From now on, the mob, begotten by the monstrous accumulation of capital, accompanied its begetter on those voyages of discovery where nothing was discovered but new possibilities for investment.
The owners of superfluous wealth were the only men who could use the superfluous men who came from the four corners of the earth. Together they established the first paradise of parasites whose lifeblood was gold. He was completely ignorant not only of the history of ideas but also any wider issues in history. Thus, although he recognized British excellence in several fields; intellectually, it was the Germans, with their dedication to Sanskrit, their organization, and their historical, critical, and comparative methods, who most impressed him.
I will therefore confine myself to an account of them. Our President was Prof. Among the members who attend were Dr. They have examined the Vedas carefully, and traced out a great many facts concerning the original history and condition of the Indian Aryans, and compiled dictionaries, concordances, and grammars. Buddhism, the memory of which has faded away in Indian, has again been brought to our notice; and its sacred texts, Manuscripts of which are nowhere now found in India, have been rendered available to us. In this work of study and research, the Germans, of all the nations of Europe, have been the foremost.
But somehow Sanskrit and philological studies have not found a congenial soil in the British Isles. While there are at present twenty-five German scholars at least who have been working in the different branches of Sanskrit literature and have published something, we have not more than five among Englishmen. England employs Germans in connection with her philological work. The best Sanskrit scholar in the country is a German, and the Professor of Sanskrit at Edinburgh and the philological Librarian of the India office are Germans.
Besides the passages collected in n. This mutual admiration, however, cannot solely explain the transfer of authority from the Brahmans to the German Indologists, since the Indians could conceivably have admired the Germans, and yet seen them as a distinct nation or race with its own traditions and history. How was it possible to see them not as a distinct culture, but as related to India through a law of succession? Here is where we must consider the role of Christian supersessionism, itself mediated by German historicism.
Although Bhandarkar expressed a general alienation from his own tradition, he singled out one group of Europeans more than any other for approbation. In his report from the Seventh International Orientalist Congress held in in Vienna , he characterized the Germans as the successors to Indian antiquity. The meetings were held in the hall and lecture rooms of the magnificent new University. Hospitality was shown to the foreign members by the Archduke, the Minister of Public Instruction, the Municipality, and the Committee of Management.
He was followed by the President, Baron Kremer, who delivered a long address in French. Then the leaders of the different deputations rose one after another and made a few observations, and those who had brought presents for the Congress laid them on the table. Besides the members of the Congress there were other distinguished guests, among whom was the British Ambassador, Sir Augustus Paget.
On Wednesday, a sumptuous entertainment was given in the afternoon by the Burgomaster in the large banqueting hall of the Rathhaus. The Rathhaus or Townhall is an extensive and noble building round which the learned guests were taken, previous to their being led into the banqueting hall. Refreshments were laid on the table, and the best available music provided for the occasion. In the evening of the same day, there was a reception at the residence of Archduke Rainer.
There was an unlimited supply of the best Viennese sweetmeats, and tea, coffee, and ices. A good many persons, including myself, were introduced to the Archduke and the Duchess, who spoke a few words to them in German, French, or English. On Thursday, a grand dinner was given in the evening by the Committee of organization, and there were toasts and post- prandial speeches as usual.
In the afternoon of Friday, the members of the Congress were taken in river-steamboats by the Danube canal and by a special train up a hill in the vicinity called Kahlenburg, the view from which is splendid. The whole city of Vienna lay at our feet at a short distance, and with hillson the sides, the scene was charming. It was as such an attendee of Viennese galas that Bhandarkar started to look down upon the Indians.
There was a Viennese lady who attended the meetings of our section [. Such a compliment, I thought, these European scholars, and especially the Germans, deserved. Having crossed mountains, forests and oceans, I, the poor creature, have reached this congress. May we and also our countries be bound to each other with the bonds of love. May such congress be arranged for friendship among the countries, end of battles, and for the welfare of mankind. Doug McGetchin argues that the German interest in India was always strongly motivated by its sense of rivalry with the French.
Thus they strove to establish a cultural superiority over Greco-Roman civilization and its French inheritors. Statesmen such as Wilhelm von Humboldt, who took up the study of Sanskrit, convinced the Prussian state to fund professorial chairs of study in ancient Indian studies as a counter to contemporary French cultural hegemony.
It controlled not only all appointments in the field; it also controlled access to education. This elite was characterized by strong in-group dynamics, including intermarriage and a legal monopoly of certain offices. Gerth and C. Besides the specific status honor, which always rests upon distance and exclusiveness, we find all sorts of material monopolies.
Such honorific preferences may consist of the privilege of wearing certain costumes, of eating special dishes taboo to others, and of carrying arms—which is most obvious in its consequences—the right to pursue certain non-professional dilettante artistic practices, e. Of course, material monopolies provide the most effective motives for the exclusiveness of a status group; although, in themselves, they are rarely sufficient, almost always they come into play to some extent.
Within a status circle there is the question of intermarriage: the interest of the families in the monopolization of potential bridegrooms is at least of equal importance and is parallel to the interest in the monopolization of daughters. The daughters of the circle must be provided for.
With an increased closure of the status group, the conventional preferential opportunities for special employment grow into a legal monopoly of special offices for the members. Certain goods become objects for monopolization by status groups. This monopolization occurs positively when the status group is exclusively entitled to own and manage them; and negatively when, in order to maintain its specific way of life, the status group must not own and manage them.
Douglas T. McGetchin, Peter K. As a means of social control, this privilege was so effective that even traditional pandits often found a German degree inescapable. It will be too late. In all three cases, the contrast with the alleged materialism of the British is instructive. If mere economic acquisition and naked economic power still bearing the stigma of its extra-status origin could bestow upon anyone who has won it the same honor as those who are interested in status by virtue of style of life claim for themselves, the status order would be threatened at its very root. Yet if such economic acquisition and power gave the agent any honor at all, his wealth would result in his attaining more honor than those who successfully claim honor by virtue of style of life.
Therefore all groups having interests in the status order react with special sharpness precisely against the pretensions of purely economic acquisition. For the former, Wilhelm Rau, Bilder deutscher Indologen, 2nd ed. Sykes, , and a diplomat and general Anton Graf von Prokesch- Osten, The desire to associate with nobility is evident. Further examples include the pursuit of knighthoods and titles. Albrecht Weber was knighted in Richard von Garbe was elevated to a life peerage in More examples could doubtless be found.
Even the politics of membership in one of the prestigious scientific academies of the various German cities and states indicates a concern with social rank and privilege. In contrast, the hapless Benfey struggled for years to gain membership of the St. Petersburg academy eluded him. Such usurpation is the normal origin of all status honor. In all these ways, then, German Indology constituted a status group.
Native scholars, even the most well-qualified, were simultaneously delegitimated, or rather, in order to survive they had to integrate themselves into the new hierarchy. They were in fact a separate status group existing alongside the Indologists. As such, they could only continue to exist as long as a strict ethnic separation was maintained between the Indologists and them. The adoption of a strategy where comparativism was the keystone of their works unintentionally contributed to discrediting the study of India in the strictest sense.
Key sources listed in her bibliography are missing from the discussion. She also neglects the fact that race was a motivating factor for German Indology since its inception; in fact, it was the key reason German scholars embarked upon the search for origins. Absent the racial contrast between them and the Indians, German Indologists would have been unable to make a case for themselves as the inheritors of and successors to Indian antiquity. It is in this sense that the word is used here. Correctly formulated: a comprehensive societalization integrates the ethnically divided communities into specific political and communal action.
A Prussian state founded on the notion of emancipation from clerical authority would not have funded an Indology modeled on traditional hermeneutics. Neither would there have been a role for the German scholars, if Brahmans continued to be recognized as the true authorities. The only condition under which Indology could develop was if Brahmanism was delegitimated both as a social system and as an epistemic paradigm.
Sent by the Prussian state with the support of both the Kultusministerium and the Finanzministerium and the explict assent of Kaiser Wilhelm I to study Sanskrit and collect manuscripts in Benares, he was not there to further native scholarship, but to ensure a smooth transfer of power from India to Germany. Brahmans and Indologists might conceivably have coexisted as members of distinct ethnicities, each occupying the apex of their respective societies. Their leaders at the univeristies will speak for all graduates in demanding that public affairs be put increasingly into the hands of the educated few, rather than being managed by the untrained and intellectually as well as morally backward nobles.
Their personal and social aspirations extend beyond the standing of lower-class experts or scribes. They demand to be recognized as a sort of spiritual nobility, to be raised above the class of their origins by their learning. Instead, they regard learning as a process in which contact with venerated sources results in the absorption of their spiritual content, so that an indelible quality of spiritual elevation is conferred upon the student.
In short, as the mandarins become more powerful, their intellectual leaders turn against the rather narrow ideological platform form whicih they started, replacing it with an ideal of learning which can function as an honorific substitute for nobility of birth. They have even shipped me the gifts due to the priest, because I know the Veda better than their own priests; and they have also sent me the sacred thread of the Brahmans, which I am as proud of as I would be of a shining Order.
At stake, after all, was their Bible, which in the three or four thousand years of its existence had never seen a published edition. But the book was stronger than its enemies, it was indispensable, and finally was recognized even by those who had issued the ban. The late Dr. Rather, as we saw, German Indology instituted its own caste hierarchy. Indeed, the Brahmans themselves provide confirmation of his neo-Brahman status with the gift of a sacred thread. Butters, eds. Not only were they refused academic positions; they were also subject to constant reminders of their lower, supplicant status.
Indeed, many German scholars acknowledged that they performed a socially necessary function. His conversion to Christianity was probably influenced more by external reasons. Placed at the head of a nation, they were satisfied with intellectual precedence, and left rulership and power to the second, [and] wealth and the good life to the third caste. Their life, full of minute observances, was hardly enviable, so that once in our poem [Mbh Rather than seek to eliminate the Brahman as a type, the Indologists were seeking to supplant them as a group.
As such, they would assume responsibility for the educational needs of not only the Germans, but also the Indians. Their gestures and language are casual and graceful, their intercourse peaceful, their body clean, their lifestyle simple and harmless. Children are raised gently, yet they do not lack knowledge and even less quiet industry and refined imitative arts; even the lower groups learn to read, write, and calculate. Since the Brahmans are thus the educators of the youth, they have for millennia performed an unmistakable service to mankind. It was Christianity that allowed the prophetic teachings of moral rationalism to transcend the confines of a single tribe.
It was Christianity that made these teachings available to the entire world. In making these claims, Weber reveals himself to be embedded in the cultural and religious context of his day. This is why all great Indologists from foreign countries have studied with German Indologists and German Indology led in almost all fields of Indology until the World War [I]. Their observations of vocal forms already led in the prehistoric period to a phonetics that deserves our highest admiration.
In Europe the comparative Indo-Germanic linguistics [vergleichende indogermanische Sprachwissenschaft], whose methods are today decisive for all linguistic research, developed from Indian grammar. Comparative philology is today also a subject in India, at least at the large universities. But it is ab initio clear that something quite different is concealed by this name than what we understand by it.
The teacher, even if he himself has a knowledge of other languages, cannot teach comparative linguistics to students who, besides Sanskrit, their vernacular language, and English, at most know a little of an Iranian language. The conspicuous correspondences between the German and the Indian spirit have already been pointed out often. Brandes already pointed out the inclination to tranquil contemplation and abstract speculation as well as the tendency towards pantheism among the Germans and Indians. But the German and the Indiain essence also touch each other in many other respects in striking ways.
The sentimentality and feel for nature are also peculiar to German and Indian poetry, whereas, for example, they are alien to Hebrew or Greek poetry. Germans and Indians love depictions of nature; and just like the German poets the Indian poets love to bring the sufferings and joys of humans into a relationship with the nature that surrounds them. The resemblance between Germans and Indians encounters us in yet another completely different field. And in whose name?
Leipzig: C. Amelangs Verlag, , 6—7. Since he is supposed not only to function as a mere scholar, his view of the culture he embodies through his erudition is necessarily more holistic. Caste with its horizontal relations and its individually negotiated compromises between communities is precisely what challenges the Hegelian state. There is no want of a will to command moral actions, but of a will to perform them because commanded from within.
Nicholas A. Mark Lilla, in his review of a nonad of books on St. Above all, it would liberate Indians from the ill effects of Brahman domination. They claimed that by offering an alternative to Brahmanism, portrayed as the epitome of a reactionary and unjust social order, they would institute a more liberal, tolerant, and enlightened tradition. Whether that is what Paul meant, he has become the patron saint of the revolutionaries, the radical levelers, who will not have any hierarchy, whether it be in Judaism Lilla cites a particularly egregious example from Alain Badiou or in Hinduism we can cite almost any South Asianist writing today , except of course the one they institute themselves.
Bradley J. This holds a forteriori for the work of the South Asianists. The student is in a relationship of absolute dependence vis-a-vis his teacher; thus a faith in authority is inculcated in him that is baleful to the free development of independent research and the progress of science. Poetically, this is depicted as a revelation that is conveyed to him by a bull, the flaming fire, a wild goose, and a diving bird.
He returns to his teacher, who concludes from his radiant appearance that he has attained Brahman and asks him who instructed him. For I have heard from people equal to the respected sir that science follows the most effective path when learnt from the teacher. He did not forget anything. Further, one cannot deny that in his style of education he consequence is a pronounced specialization. However, for more than a generation little of European influence was felt in Sanskrit philology. Western methods and Western views only began to penetrate since the s.
Shankar P. They were soon followed by Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, who, equally venerable as a man and as a scholar, did pioneering work in a modern spirit in the most varied fields of Indian philology. Above all, the Indologists claimed that, as a product of the Enlightenment, their science transcended the distinctions of caste, creed, and color.
Yet Indians found that all German Indologists had done was replace one caste hierarchy with another. Worse still, the Indians had exposed themselves to racism. Und wenn sich das alles weit von unserer Welt wie auf einer fernen Insel abzuspielen scheint, so mag eben daraus dem Heimischwerden in so fremden Gefilden noch ein eigener Reiz erwachsen. We are not aware of any Indian sources where the authors recorded their experiences of race. This may be due to the fact that in the nineteenth century racism was yet to reach the threshold of discursivity it has since attained.
Adluri, You have requested me for a clarification concerning your application for membership of the DMG in your letter from September 19, and thereby highlighted, among others, that you were allegedly conferred a Dr. If this is the case, you should actually also be familiar with the manners prevalent in central Europe, in Germany, and indeed also in the DMG, where you wish to become a member.
This includes that one does not gauchely address people whom one does not know by their forename without their agreement. These conventions appear either to have escaped you during your stay in Marburg or you quite intentionally disrespect such basic principles, which regulate social interaction.
In either case, you do not convey thereby any signs of politeness or of cultural sensitivity. I am certain that this little assistance with civilized manners in the European cultural sphere will also be useful to you in future. I for my part absolutely and expressly forbid you such presumptuous familiarity.
Herr Dr. The presidium consists of nine people. You are not known to this presidium. Evidently, you have confused me in my capacity as the first chairperson with a one-member presidium that decided autocratically, when you demand your admission on the basis of the fact that I allegedly mentioned your name in a discussion list and that you are therefore known to me. I only know your name and some of your writings, but I do not know you as a person.
However, the principle of recommendation for admission by existing members has as its aim that these [members] through their signatures vouch not only for the scientific integrity but also for the personal integrity of the applicant as well as for their dignity as future members. In these writings furthermore you accuse a whole lot of regular members, honorary members, and presidial members of the DMG of biased research methods and in part subject them to a racist general suspicion. It is not credible that someone who takes such a view of the German research on India, which is to a large extent gathered in the DMG, and attacks them in numerous publications himself wishes to be a member.
I have herewith said everything that you need in order to be able to orient yourself. I request you to abstain from further correspondence, for I shall not respond to it anymore. In contrast, the Indians would be delegitimated racially, culturally, and intellectually. It was too closely identified with state authority and the estate system, reinforcing conventional notions of law and respectability, and too closely governed by the nobility through patronage and preferment testimony to a century of upheaval.
Finally, Orthodoxy was intolerant: this held not only for early representatives Johann Gerhard, —; Abraham Calov, —86 but also for later ones Valentin Ernst Loscher, —; Johann Melchior Goeze, — Anti-Brahmanism is not, as we wrote then, the application of anti-Semitic stereotypes to the Brahmans though this component doubtless played a role. This is not because we deny the reality of race see the second preceding note , but because ours is a different question. Park argues for a hidden influence of Meiners on the modern historical sciences.
If his thesis is correct, then we must begin to see the entire human historical sciences as flawed not just in their inception but in their Aufbau. He fails to see how racism is a fundamental violation of concrete universality and humanism. This failure makes him akin to the Indian Brahmins of whom he is so critical. We may say: there is no society without hierarchy, and when academics write about the evil of caste they should first ask how they relate to the whole of society. Are they not equally privileged? Are they not equally insular? Do they not perpetuate an unjust hierarchy in the name of intangible spiritual benefits that allegedly flow to the community from their operation?
For a postmetaphysical age, we still retain a surprising faith in an obscure ritual magic now called the Geisteswissenschaften. Sheldon Pollock, Benjamin A. Pollock also does not explain why he, in particular, should be granted this role of stipulation or how he intends to control access. Monier-Williams, Hinduism. New York Oxford H59 F. Strassburg Thesis, Johns Hopkins University, part 1. Published in two parts, Allahabad Banaras H63 Annie Besant, Reincarnation. Chicago ; London , Barnett, Hinduism. H64 Alfred Bertholet, Seelenwanderung. Tubingen H65 S. Desai, Study of the Indian Philosophy.
London, Bombay H66 E. Volume I: Brahmanism. H68 W. H69 T. H72 R. H78 E. Chicago , , H80 George A. H83 T. Third edition Delhi H84 W. Atkinson, The Philosophy and Religion of India. Translated into Italian by E. Zanotti, Milano H85 Julius Baumann, Unsterblichkeit und Seelenwanderung. H86 A. Hogg, Karma and Redemption. Madras H87 P. Iyengar, Outlines of Indian Philosophy. H89 V. Kirtikar, " Sat and asat being and non-being ", IR 10,, H92 Atisha W. Bowes-Taylor , Exposition of the Doctrine of Karma.
H93 W. Dilger, Der indischer Seelenwanderungsglaube. Basler Missionsstudien 37, Basel H96 T. Rajagopalachariar, "Philosophy of Brahmaism", IR 11, , Second edition. H99 S. Desai, "Brahma", HJ 10, , H E. Greaves, "Is Hinduism pantheistic? H G. Preussischen Ak. Wissenschaft , Translated into English by V. Sukhthankar in IA 47, , German reprinted in HJKS.
Index of /
H M. H A. David and H. Sinha, "A Hindu view of nirvana ", BR 5, , H Robert Falke, Die Seelenwanderung. Lerlange Pavia H W. Urqhart, "Ethical values in Indian thought", CR 1, , H J. Farqhar, A Primer of Hinduism. Oxford Second edition H Aurobindo Ghose, Views and Reviews. H L. H F. Belloni-Filippi, I maggiori sistemi filosifici indiani. Palermo H R. Frazer, Indian Thought, Past and Present. H C. Adyar H N. Ramanujacarya, "Existence of the soul", ME 4, , Ramanujacarya, "Some essential features of Indian thought", VK 2, , ff.
H B. Seal, Positive Sciences of the Ancient Hindus. London ; Banaras Mehta, "Evolution of the conception of pranava or om ", SR 1. H K. Robertson, "The conception of Brahma", Mon 26, , ff. Chatterji, La vision de la sages de l'Inde. H Ethel M. Kitch, Origin of Subjectivity in Indian Thought. Chicago Sane, "A short review of Indian logic", SR 2, , Bhate, "Indian logic", IPR 2, , Zurich H P.
Thesis, University of London Mead, "A word on yoga ", Qu 11, , Reprinted ChSSt 16, , Reprinted PB , , H S. Farqhar, Outlines of the Religious Literature of India. Oxford ; Delhi Calcutta ; Delhi , Translated into Spanish, Barcelona Bhattacharya, "Place of the indefinite in logic", JDL 7, Bhattacharya, "Some aspects of negation", JDL 7, , Carpenter, Theism in Medieval India. H Charles Eliot, Hinduism and Buddhism. Farqhar, "Karma: its value as a doctrine of life", HJ 20, , H T. Hodson, "The doctrine of rebirth in various areas in India", Man in India 1.
Iyer, " Isvara and the problem of evil", VK 8, , ff. Masson-Oursel, Doctrines et methodes psychologiques de l'Inde. Ozanne, "Karma", HJ 20, , Shastri, "Conception of freedom", JDL 7, , Welland, "Karma", HJ 20, , Five volumes. Cambridge, England Reprinted Delhi Abridged version Allahabad Kern, Licht des Ostens.
Stuttgart H John Mckenzie, Hindu Ethics. H H. Schomerus, Die Anthroposophie Steiners und Indien. H Helmut von Glasenapp, Der Hinduismus. Munchen Bennett, The Wisdom of the Aryans. Iyer, " Isvara and human freedom", VK 10, , ff. Bonn Maximilian Kern , Leipzig , Reprinted in AOIT. Translated as Comparative Philosophy , London H Suddhananda, "Is the world real or false? Washburn Hopkins, Ethics of India. New Haven Iyer, " Isvara and the need of a mediator", VK 11, , ff.
Ranade, "Indian philosophy", CR 12, , H Henry N. Randle, "A note on the Indian syllogism", Mi n. Adhikari, "One or many? Also PQ 3, , Also JainG 22, , Chandavarka, A Manual of Hindu Ethics. POS 38, Reprinted JIAP 41, , H Richard Garbe, Indische Reiseskizzen.
Munchen-Neubiberg H Alfred S. Geden, " Darsana ", ERE 4, , Geden, "Devayana", ERE 4, , Gomperz, Die Indische Theosophie. Jena Malkani, "Intuition", PQ 1, , Malkani, "Existence", PQ 1, , H Caroline A. H Rudolf Steiner, Manifestations of Karma. H Otto Strauss, Indische Philosophie. Munchen , Also JDL 13, , l Wadia, "Is change ultimate? H Aurobindo Ghose, Essays on the Gita. First Series, Calcutta Second Series, Calcutta Pondicherry ; New York Malkani, "Problem of proof", PQ 2, , Malkani, "Negation", PQ 3, , Also PICP 6, , H Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, "'Indian philosophy'--some problems", Mi n.
H Badri Nath Sastri, "What were the methods adopted by the ancient Indian thinkers to arrive at the truth? H Surendranath Dasgupta, Hindu Mysticism. Chicago , Also IPS 2, Two volumes. Lahore H Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy. London ; New York Translated into German by R. Jochel, Darmstadt Translated into German by H. Schomerus, Leipzig Ramaswami Sastri, "The Hindu conception of deity", Jignyasa 1.
H Otto Strauss, "Mahabhasya ad Panini 4. Yevtis, Karma and Reincarnation. H U. Translated by Nityapadananda. Hanumantha Rao, "Prof. Hiriyanna as a teacher of philosophy", JMysoreU 12, , Shastri, The Essentials of Eastern Philosophy. Chakravarti, "Bengal's contribution to philosophical literature in Sanskrit", IA 48, - 49, Also PEIP Jain, Faith, Knowledge and Conduct. Allahabad Bhavnagar , H Etienne Lamotte, Notes sur le Bhagavadgita.
Also IPS 1, Ramaswami Sastri, "The six darsana s", VK 16, , ff. Ramaswami Sastri, "Indian metaphysics", VK 16, 20, 64, Srinivasiengar, "Fate or free will: the Indian solution", PQ 5, , Potsdam Also SPR Malkani, "Intellect and intuition", PQ 5, , Gotha Otto Schrader, Der Hinduismus. H Heinrich Zimmer, Ewiges Indien. Potsdam, Zurich Almora Beresford, "The moral aspect of reincarnation", AP 2, , ff. Bhattacharya, "Correction of error as a logical process", CR 39, , Malkani, "The concept of progress", AP 2, , 72 ff. H Rudolf Steiner, Destiny or Karma.
Translated by Henry Collison. Trivedi, "The psychology of upasana ", BP 46, , ff. Atreya, "The problem of evil in Indian philosophy", PQ 8, , H Haridas Bhattacharya, "Was there a unitary karma doctrine? Brahma, The Philosophy of Hindu Sadhana.
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London ; Delhi , Uppsala Das, "Spirit of Indian philosophy", CR 42, , H Max H. Harrison, Indian Monism and Pluralism. London , , Hutton, "Metempsychosis", Man in India 12, , Joad, "The puzzle of Indian philosophy", AP 3, , ff. Kumarappa, "Karma as a theory of retribution", AP 3, , ff. Kumarappa, "Karma as a theory of causation", AP 3, , ff. Malkani, "Free will in Indian philosophy", AP 3, , ff. Murthy, "Nature of philosophical endeavor", VK 19, , Murti, "The universal and the particular", PQ 8, Reprinted StIndT New York ; London Sinha, "The nature of prama ", PQ 8, , Wadia, "The study of philosophy in India today", AP 3, , 10 ff.
Bhattacharya, "Concept of svadharma in the Gita ", CR 47, , Chubb, "Time and the significance of contradiction", JUBo 1, , Das, "The ethical value of the doctrine of reincarnation", AP 4, , ff. Das, "The puzzle of Indian philosophy", AP 4, , ff. H Surendranath Dasgupta, Indian Idealism. Cambridge , H Mysore Hiriyanna, "What is ananyatvam?
Jalota, "On the problem of error", CR 48, , Radhakrishnan", AP 4, , ff. Pratt, "Recent developments in Indian thought", JP 30, , H Lillian M. Reprinted in ILAR pp. Srinivasachari, "Atmanism", PQ 9, , Venkataraman, "The practical outlook of Indian philosophy", PQ 9, , Atreya, The Elements of Indian Logic. Benares ; Bombay ; Moradabad Ayyub, "Why is philosophy stagnant? Bhattacharya, "Problem of time in Indian thought", CR 52, , Also PQ 10, , H Walter E. Clark, Indian Conceptions of Immortality. Malkani, "The Absolute", PQ 10, , Micha, La reincarnation. Le karma. Deux conferences.
Bruxelles Murti, "Perception and its object", PQ 10, , Murti, "Knowing, feeling and willing as functions of consciousness", PQ 10, Raju, "Need for re-orientation of Indian philosophy", AP 5, , ff. Rangachari, "Causality in modern science and Indian philosophy", PQ 10, , Rawson, The Katha Upanisad. H Carolyn A. Rhys Davids, Indian Religion and Survival. Ramaswami Sastri, "Indian metaphysics today", VK 21, , ff. Harold Smith, Outline of Hinduism. Varadachari, Living Teaching of the Vedanta. Aiyar, Evolution of Hindu Moral Ideals. Pondichery Bharati, Khyativada.
H Satischandra Chatterjee, "The dividing line between perception and inference", CR 57, , Jain, Omniscience. Bijnore H Kurt F. Leidecker, "Harris and Indian philosophy", Mon 46, , ff. Murti, "Types of Indian realism", PQ 11, - 13, Murti, "Illusion as confusion of subjective functions", PQ 11, Murti, "The conception of body", PQ 11, Raju, "The outcry against comparative philosophy", AP 6, , 97 ff. H D. Sarma, "God and man in Hinduism", AP 6, , ff.
Przeglad Wspolczesny , , Translated by T. Narayanan Nambiar. Alathur, Palghat Translated from Marathi by Bhalcandra Sitaram Sukhthankar. Poona Varadachari, "What is intuition according to Tagore, Radhakrishnan, Aurobindo? Bhattacharya, "The concept of philosophy", CIP Bhattacharya, "Objective interpretation of percept and image", PQ 12, , i-vii.
H Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, "On the pertinence of philosophy", CIP Damle, "The faith of an idealist", CIP H V. Malkani, "The Hindu conception of rebirth", AP 7, , ff. Malkani, "The nature of philosophical reflection", PB 41, , Malkani, "Relation of self to knowledge", PB 41, Malkani, "Freedom through knowledge", CIP Murti, "The place of feeling in conduct", PQ 12, , Murti, "The spirit of philosophy", CIP Raju, "Philosophy in India", HR 69, , Ranade, "The evolution of my own thought", CIP Smith, "The personal basis of Indian thought", Personality 17, , Widgery, "Reincarnation and karma: their value to the individual and the State", AP 7, , ff.
H Heinrich Zimmer, Maya in German. H Ad. Also RPR 7. Deshmukh, "Concept of liberation", PQ 13, , Romero Diaz, Filosofia de la India. Caracas H Prahlad C. Also CIDO , Also MB Reprinted in RSSE i-xix. Joad, "The testimony of Indian philosophy", AP 8, , 80 ff. Dissertation, Oxford University Reprinted MSylLevi Mahadevan, "Present tendencies in Indian philosophy", VK 24, , 69 ff. Mahadevan, "The nature of reality", KK 4, , Malkani, "Existence", PQ 13, , Natu, "The climax of freedom", JUBo 6, , H Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, "Progress and spiritual values", Ph 12, , Raju, Thought and Reality.
H Fr. Bhattacharya, "The behavior of a jivanmukta ", PB 43, , Hammett, "The ideas of the ancient Hindus concerning man", Isis 28, , Also QAP Jackson, India's Quest for Reality. Mahadevan, "The conception of personality in Indian materialism", PQ 14, , Malkani, "Mysticism", PQ 14, , Malkani, "Philosophical knowledge", PQ 14, , Prem, "Initiation into yoga", RPR 7. A careful collection of materials will be found in F.
This is the more modern view, in contrast to the earlier theory most generally accepted, according to which he flourished about B. But this identification is far from certain, as a Ctesibius mechanicus is mentioned by Athenaeus as having lived under Ptolemy II. Philadelphus B. Nor can the relation of master and pupil be certainly inferred from the superscription quoted observe the omission of any article , which really asserts no more than that Hero re-edited an earlier treatise by Ctesibius, and implies nothing about his being an immediate predecessor.
Further, it is certain that Hero used physical and mathematical writings by Posidonius, the Stoic, of Apamea, Cicero's teacher, who lived until about the middle of the 1st century B. The positive arguments for the more modern view of Hero's date are 1 the use by him of Latinisms from which Diels concluded that the 1st century A.
Thus we arrive at the latter half of the 1st century A. The geometrical treatises which have survived though not interpolated in Greek are entitled respectively Definitiones , Geometria , Geodaesia , Stereometrica i. These books, except the Definitiones , mostly consist of directions for obtaining, from given parts, the areas or volumes, and other parts, of plane or solid figures. A remarkable feature is the bare statement of a number of very close approximations to the square roots of numbers which are not complete squares.
Others occur in the Metrica where also a method of finding such approximate square, and even approximate cube, roots is shown. Hero's expressions for the areas of regular polygons of from 5 to 12 sides in terms of the squares of the sides show interesting approximations to the values of trigonometrical ratios. Akin to the geometrical works is that On the Dioptra , a remarkable book on land-surveying, so called from the instrument described in it, which was used for the same purposes as the modern theodolite.
It is in this book that Hero proves the expression for the area of a triangle in terms of its sides. The Pneumatica in two books is also extant in Greek as is also the Automatopoietica. In the former will be found such things as siphons, "Hero's fountain," "penny-in-the-slot" machines, a fire-engine, a water-organ, and arrangements employing the force of steam.
Pappus quotes from three books of Mechanics and from a work called Barulcus , both by Hero. The three books on Mechanics survive in an Arabic translation which, however, bears a title "On the lifting of heavy objects. It is indeed not credible that Hero wrote two separate treatises on the subject of the mechanical powers, which are fully discussed in the Mechanics , ii. The Belopoiica on engines of war is extant in Greek, and both this and the Mechanics contain Hero's solution of the problem of the two mean proportionals.
Hero also wrote Catoptrica on reflecting surfaces , and it seems certain that we possess this in a Latin work, probably translated from the Greek by Wilhelm van Moerbeek, which was long thought to be a fragment of Ptolemy's Optics , because it bore the title Ptolemaei de speculis in the MS. But the attribution to Ptolemy was shown to be wrong as soon as it was made clear especially by Martin that another translation by an Admiral Eugenius Siculus 12th century of an optical work from the Arabic was Ptolemy's Optics.
Of other treatises by Hero only fragments remain. Halma has preserved a fragment, and to which Pappus also refers. Another work was a commentary on Euclid referred to by the Arabs as "the book of the resolution of doubts in Euclid" from which quotations have survived in an-Nairizi's commentary. Venturi's Commentari sopra la storia e la teoria dell'ottica Bologna, and H.
The geometrical works except of course the Metrica were edited Greek only by F. The Mechanics was first published by Carra de Vaux in the Journal asiatique ix. In began the publication in Teubner's series of Heronis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt omnia. Schmidt contains the Pneumatica and Automata , the fragment on Water Clocks , the De ingeniis spiritualibus of Philon of Byzantium and extracts on Pneumatics by Vitruvius.
Nix and W. A German translation is added throughout. The approximation to square roots in Hero has been the subject of papers too numerous to mention. A good account of Hero's works will be found in M.
Cantor's Geschichte der Mathematik , i. Loria's studies, Le Scienze esatte nell' antica Grecia , especially libro iii. Modena, , pp. Paris, The family seems to have been of Idumaean origin, so that its members were liable to the reproach of being half-Jews or even foreigners. Justin Martyr has a tradition that they were originally Philistines of Ascalon Dial. The tradition and the assertion are in all probability equally fictitious and proceed respectively from the foes and the friends of the Herodian dynasty.
Antipas or Antipater , the father of Antipater, had been governor of Idumaea under Alexander Jannaeus. His son allied himself by marriage with the Arabian nobility and became the real ruler of Palestine under Hyrcanus II. When Rome intervened in Asia in the person of Pompey, the younger Antipater realized her inevitable predominance and secured the friendship of her representative. After the capture of Jerusalem in 63 B. Pompey installed Hyrcanus, who was little better than a figurehead, in the high-priesthood; and when in 55 B. To this policy of dependence upon Rome Antipater adhered, and he succeeded in commending himself to Mark Antony and Caesar in turn.
After the battle of Pharsalia Caesar made him procurator and a Roman citizen. At this point Herod appears on the scene as ruler of Galilee Jos. In spite of his youth he soon found an opportunity of displaying his mettle; for he arrested Hezekiah the arch-brigand, who had overrun the Syrian border, and put him to death. The Jewish nobility at Jerusalem seized upon this high-handed action as a pretext for satisfying their jealousy of their Idumaean rulers. Herod was cited in the name of Hyrcanus to appear before the Sanhedrin, whose prerogative he had usurped in executing Hezekiah. He appeared with a bodyguard, and the Sanhedrin was overawed.
Only Sameas, a Pharisee, dared to insist upon the legal verdict of condemnation. But the governor of Syria had sent a demand for Herod's acquittal, and so Hyrcanus adjourned the trial and persuaded the accused to abscond. Herod returned with an army, but his father prevailed upon him to depart to Galilee without wreaking his vengeance upon his enemies.
About this time B. The episode is important for the light which it throws upon Herod's relations with Rome and with the Jews. In 44 B. Cassius arrived in Syria for the purpose of filling his war-chest: Antipater and Herod collected the sum of money at which the Jews of Palestine had been assessed. In 43 B. Antipater was poisoned at the instigation of one Malichus, who was perhaps a Jewish patriot animated by hatred of the Herods and their Roman patrons. With the connivance of Cassius Herod had Malichus assassinated; but the country was in a state of anarchy, thanks to the extortions of Cassius and the encroachments of neighbouring powers.
Antony, who became master of the East after Philippi, was ready to support the sons of his friend Antipater; but he was absent in Egypt when the Parthians invaded Palestine to restore Antigonus to the throne of his father Aristobulus 40 B. Herod escaped to Rome: the Arabians, his mother's people, had repudiated him.
Antony had made him tetrarch, and now with the assent of Octavian persuaded the Senate to declare him king of Judaea. In 39 B. Herod returned to Palestine and, when the presence of Antony put the reluctant Roman troops entirely at his disposal, he was able to lay siege to Jerusalem two years later.
Secure of the support of Rome he was concerned also to legitimize his position in the eyes of the Jews by taking, for love as well as policy, the Hasmonaean princess Mariamne to be his second wife. Jerusalem was taken by storm; the Roman troops withdrew to behead Antigonus the usurper at Antioch. In 37 B. Herod was king of Judaea, being the client of Antony and the husband of Mariamne. The Pharisees, who dominated the bulk of the Jews, were content to accept Herod's rule as a judgment of God.
Hyrcanus returned from his prison: mutilated, he could no longer hold office as high-priest; but his mutilation probably gave him the prestige of a martyr, and his influence--whatever it was worth--seems to have been favourable to the new dynasty. On the other hand Herod's marriage with Mariamne brought some of his enemies into his own household. He had scotched the faction of Hasmonaean sympathizers by killing forty-five members of the Sanhedrin and confiscating their possessions. But so long as there were representatives of the family alive, there was always a possible pretender to the throne which he occupied; and the people had not lost their affection for their former deliverers.
Mariamne's mother used her position to further her plots for the overthrow of her son-in-law; and she found an ally in Cleopatra of Egypt, who was unwilling to be spurned by him, even if she was not weary of his patron, Antony. The events of Herod's reign indicate the temporary triumphs of his different adversaries. But the enthusiasm with which the people received him at the Feast of Tabernacles convinced Herod of the danger; and the youth was drowned by order of the king at Jericho.
Cleopatra had obtained from Antony a grant of territory adjacent to Herod's domain and even part of it. She required Herod to collect arrears of tribute. So it fell out that, when Octavian and the Senate declared war against Antony and Cleopatra, Herod was preoccupied in obedience to her commands and was thus prevented from fighting against the future emperor of Rome. After the battle of Actium 31 B. Herod executed Hyrcanus and proceeded to wait upon the victorious Octavian at Rhodes.
His position was confirmed and his territories were restored. On his return he took in hand to heal with the Hasmonaeans, and in 25 B. From this time onwards Herod was free to govern Palestine, as a client-prince of the Roman Empire should govern his kingdom. In order to put down the brigands who still infested the country and to check the raids of the Arabs on the frontier, he built or rebuilt fortresses, which were of material assistance to the Jews in the great revolt against Rome.
Within and without Judaea he erected magnificent buildings and founded cities. He established games in honour of the emperor after the ancient Greek model in Caesarea and Jerusalem and revived the splendour of the Olympic games. At Athens and elsewhere he was commemorated as a benefactor; and as Jew and king of the Jews he restored the temple at Jerusalem. The emperor recognized his successful government by putting the districts of Ulatha and Panias under him in 20 B. But Herod found new enemies among the members of his household. His brother Pheroras and sister Salome plotted for their own advantage and against the two sons of Mariamne.
The people still cherished a loyalty to the Hasmonaean lineage, although the young princes were also the sons of Herod. The enthusiasm with which they were received fed the suspicion, which their uncle instilled into their father's mind, and they were strangled at Sebaste. On his deathbed Herod discovered that his eldest son, Antipater, whom Josephus calls a "monster of iniquity," had been plotting against him. He proceeded to accuse him before the governor of Syria and obtained leave from Augustus to put him to death.
The father died five days after his son in 4 B. He had done much for the Jews, thanks to the favour he had won and kept in spite of all from the successive heads of the Roman state; he had observed the Law publicly--in fact, as the traditional epigram of Augustus says, "it was better to be Herod's swine than a son of Herod. Josephus, Ant. Like his father, Antipas had a turn for architecture: he rebuilt and fortified the town of Sepphoris in Galilee; he also fortified Betharamptha in Peraea, and called it Julias after the wife of the emperor.
Above all he founded the important town of Tiberias on the west shore of the Sea of Galilee, with institutions of a distinctly Greek character. He reigned 4 B. In the gospels he is mentioned as Herod. He it was who was called a "fox" by Christ Luke xiii. He is erroneously spoken of as a king in Mark vi. It was to him that Jesus was sent by Pilate to be tried.
But it is in connexion with his wife Herodias that he is best known, and it was through her that his misfortunes arose. He was married first of all to a daughter of Aretas, the Arabian king; but, making the acquaintance of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip not the tetrarch , during a visit to Rome, he was fascinated by her and arranged to marry her. Meantime his Arabian wife discovered the plan and escaped to her father, who made war on Herod, and completely defeated his army. John the Baptist condemned his marriage with Herodias, and in consequence was put to death in the way described in the gospels and in Josephus.
When Herodias's brother Agrippa was appointed king by Caligula, she was determined to see her husband attain to an equal eminence, and persuaded him, though naturally of a quiet and unambitious temperament, to make the journey to Rome to crave a crown from the emperor. Agrippa, however, managed to influence Caligula against him. Antipas was deprived of his dominions and banished to Lyons, Herodias voluntarily sharing his exile.
His subjects were mainly Greeks or Syrians, and his coins bear the image of Augustus or Tiberius. He is described as an excellent ruler, who loved peace and was careful to maintain justice, and spent his time in his own territories.
He was also a builder of cities, one of which was Caesarea Philippi, and another was Bethsaida, which he called Julias. He died after a reign of thirty-seven years 4 B. Apart from the intrinsic merit of these pieces, they are interesting in the history of Greek literature as being a new species, illustrating Alexandrian methods. They are called [Greek: Mimiamboi], "Mimeiambics. These were scenes in popular life, written in the language of the people, vigorous with racy proverbs such as we get in other reflections of that region--in Petronius and the Pentamerone. Two of the best known and the most vital among the Idylls of Theocritus, the 2nd and the 15th, we know to have been derived from mimes of Sophron.
What Theocritus is doing there, Herodas, his younger contemporary, is doing in another manner--casting old material into novel form, upon a small scale, under strict conditions of technique. The method is entirely Alexandrian: Sophron had written in a peculiar kind of rhythmical prose; Theocritus uses the hexameter and Doric, Herodas the scazon or "lame" iambic with a dragging spondee at the end and the old Ionic dialect with which that curious metre was associated.
That, however, hardly goes beyond the choice and form of words; the structure of the sentences is close-knit Attic. But the grumbling metre and quaint language suit the tone of common life which Herodas aims at realizing; for, as Theocritus may be called idealist, Herodas is a realist unflinching. His persons talk in vehement exclamations and emphatic turns of speech, with proverbs and fixed phrases; and occasionally, where it is designed as proper to the part, with the most naked coarseness of expression.
The scene of the second and the fourth is laid at Cos, and the speaking characters in each are never more than three. In Mime I. After hearing all the arguments Metriche declines with dignity, but consoles the old woman with an ample glass of wine, this kind being always represented with the taste of Mrs Gamp. The vulgar blackguard, who is a stranger to any sort of shame, remarking that he has no evidence to call, proceeds to a peroration in the regular oratorical style, appealing to the Coan judges not to be unworthy of their traditional glories.
In fact, the whole oration is also a burlesque in every detail of an Attic speech at law; and in this case we have the material from which to estimate the excellence of the parody. In III. In a voluble stream of interminable sentences she narrates his misdeeds and implores the schoolmaster to flog him. The boy accordingly is hoisted on another's back and flogged; but his spirit does not appear to be subdued, and the mother resorts to the old man after all.
The oily sacristan is admirably painted in a few slight strokes. The jealous woman accuses one of her slaves, whom she has made her favourite, of infidelity; has him bound and sent degraded through the town to receive lashes; no sooner is he out of sight than she recalls him to be branded "at one job. The subject is an ugly one, but the dialogue is as clever and amusing as the rest, with some delicious touches. Our interest is engaged here in a certain Kerdon, the artistic shoemaker, to whom we are introduced in VII.
Within the limits of lines or less Herodas presents us with a highly entertaining scene and with characters definitely drawn. Some of these had been perfected no doubt upon the Attic stage, where the tendency in the 4th century had been gradually to evolve accepted types--not individuals, but generalizations from a class, an art in which Menander's was esteemed the master-hand. The [Greek: Pornoboskos] and the [Greek: Mastropos] we can piece together from succeeding literature, and see how skilfully the established traits are indicated here.
This is achieved by true dramatic means, with touches never wasted and the more delightful often because they do not clamour for attention. The execution has the qualities of first-rate Alexandrian work in miniature, such as the epigrams of Asclepiades possess, the finish and firm outlines; and these little pictures bear the test of all artistic work--they do not lose their freshness with familiarity, and gain in interest as one learns to appreciate their subtle points. The papyrus MS. Kenyon in Editions by O. Crusius , text only, in Teubner series and J.
Nairn , with introduction, notes and bibliography. There is an English verse translation of the mimes by H. Sharpley under the title A Realist of the Aegean. In each of these cases their name is coupled with that of the Pharisees. According to many interpreters the courtiers or soldiers of Herod Antipas "Milites Herodis," Jerome are intended; but more probably the Herodians were a public political party, who distinguished themselves from the two great historical parties of post-exilian Judaism by the fact that they were and had been sincerely friendly to Herod the Great and to his dynasty cf.
It is possible that, to gain adherents, the Herodian party may have been in the habit of representing that the establishment of a Herodian dynasty would be favourable to the realization of the theocracy; and this in turn may account for Tertullian's De praescr. The sect was called by the Rabbis Boethusians as being friendly to the family of Boethus, whose daughter Mariamne was one of Herod the Great's wives. He is supposed to have been a Syrian Greek. In he was in Rome, where he held some minor posts.
He does not appear to have attained high official rank; the statement that he was imperial procurator and legate of the Sicilian provinces rests upon conjecture only. The narrative is of special value as supplementing Dion Cassius, whose history ends with Alexander Severus. His work has the value that attaches to a record written by one chronicling the events of his own times, gifted with ordinary powers of observation, indubitable candour and independence of view. But while he gives a lively account of external events--such as the death of Commodus and the assassination of Pertinax--the barbarian invasions, the spread of Christianity, the extension of the franchise by Caracalla are unnoticed.
The dates are often wrong, and little attention is paid to geographical details, which makes the narrative of military expeditions beyond the borders of the empire difficult to understand. Herodian has been accused of prejudice against Alexander Severus. His style, modelled on that of Thucydides and unreservedly praised by Photius, is on the whole pure, though somewhat rhetorical and showing a fondness for Latinisms. Extensive use has been made of Herodianus by later chroniclers, especially the "Scriptores historiae Augustae" and John of Antioch.
His history was first translated into Latin at the end of the 15th century by Politian. The most complete edition is by G. Irmisch , with elaborate indices, but the notes are very diffuse; critical editions by I. Bekker , L. Mendelssohn ; see also C. He early took up his residence at Rome, where he enjoyed the patronage of Marcus Aurelius , to whom he dedicated his great treatise on prosody.
The work itself is lost, but several epitomes of it have been preserved. His [Greek: Hepimerismoi] dealt with difficult words and peculiar forms in Homer. Numerous quotations and fragments still exist, chiefly in the Homeric scholiasts and Stephanus of Byzantium. Herodianus enjoyed a great reputation as a grammarian, and Priscian styles him "maximus auctor artis grammaticae.
The best edition is by A. Lentz, Herodiani. Technici reliquiae ; a supplementary volume is included in Uhling's Corpus grammaticorum Graecorum ; for further bibliographical information see W. Christ, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur Herodotus was thus born a Persian subject, and such he continued until he was thirty or five-and-thirty years of age. At the time of his birth Halicarnassus was under the rule of a queen Artemisia q. The year of her death is unknown; but she left her crown to her son Pisindelis born about B.
The family of Herodotus belonged to the upper rank of the citizens. His father was named Lyxes, and his mother Rhaeo, or Dryo.
He had a brother Theodore, and an uncle or cousin Panyasis q. It is probable that Herodotus shared his relative's political opinions, and either was exiled from Halicarnassus or quitted it voluntarily at the time of his execution. Of the education of Herodotus no more can be said than that it was thoroughly Greek, and embraced no doubt the three subjects essential to a Greek liberal education--grammar, gymnastic training and music. His studies would be regarded as completed when he attained the age of eighteen, and took rank among the ephebi or eirenes of his native city.
In a free Greek state he would at once have begun his duties as a citizen, and found therein sufficient employment for his growing energies. But in a city ruled by a tyrant this outlet was wanting; no political life worthy of the name existed. Herodotus may thus have had his thoughts turned to literature as furnishing a not unsatisfactory career, and may well have been encouraged in his choice by the example of Panyasis, who had already gained a reputation by his writings when Herodotus was still an infant. At any rate it is clear from the extant work of Herodotus that he must have devoted himself early to the literary life, and commenced that extensive course of reading which renders him one of the most instructive as well as one of the most charming of ancient writers.
The poetical literature of Greece was already large; the prose literature was more extensive than is generally supposed; yet Herodotus shows an intimate acquaintance with the whole of it. The Iliad and the Odyssey are as familiar to him as Shakespeare to the educated Englishman. He quotes and criticizes Hecataeus, the best of the prose writers who had preceded him, and makes numerous allusions to other authors of the same class.
It must not, however, be supposed that he was at any time a mere student. It is probable that from an early age his inquiring disposition led him to engage in travels, both in Greece and in foreign countries. He undertook the long and perilous journey from Sardis to the Persian capital Susa, visited Babylon, Colchis, and the western shores of the Black Sea as far as the estuary of the Dnieper; he travelled in Scythia and in Thrace, visited Zante and Magna Graecia, explored the antiquities of Tyre, coasted along the shores of Palestine, saw Gaza, and made a long stay in Egypt.
At the most moderate estimate, his travels covered a space of thirty-one degrees of longitude, or miles, and twenty-four of latitude, or nearly the same distance. At all the more interesting sites he took up his abode for a time; he examined, he inquired, he made measurements, he accumulated materials. Having in his mind the scheme of his great work, he gave ample time to the elaboration of all its parts, and took care to obtain by personal observation a full knowledge of the various countries. The travels of Herodotus seem to have been chiefly accomplished between his twentieth and his thirty-seventh year B.
His residence in Egypt must, on the other hand, have been subsequent to B. Skulls are rarely visible on a battlefield for more than two or three seasons after the fight, and we may therefore presume that it was during the reign of Inarus B. On his return from Egypt, as he proceeded along the Syrian shore, he seems to have landed at Tyre, and from thence to have gone to Thasos. His Scythian travels are thought to have taken place prior to B.
It is a question of some interest from what centre or centres these various expeditions were made.
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Up to the time of the execution of Panyasis, which is placed by chronologists in or about the year B. His travels in Asia Minor, in European Greece, and among the islands of the Aegean, probably belong to this period, as also his journey to Susa and Babylon. We are told that when he quitted Halicarnassus on account of the tyranny of Lygdamis, in or about the year B. That island was an important member of the Athenian confederacy, and in making it his home Herodotus would have put himself under the protection of Athens.
The stories that he had heard in Egypt of Sesostris may then have stimulated him to make voyages from Samos to Colchis, Scythia and Thrace. He was thus acquainted with almost all the regions which were to be the scene of his projected history. After Herodotus had resided for some seven or eight years in Samos, events occurred in his native city which induced him to return thither.
The tyranny of Lygdamis had gone from bad to worse, and at last he was expelled. According to Suidas, Herodotus was himself an actor, and indeed the chief actor, in the rebellion against him; but no other author confirms this statement, which is intrinsically improbable. It is certain, however, that Halicarnassus became henceforward a voluntary member of the Athenian confederacy. Herodotus would now naturally return to his native city, and enter upon the enjoyment of those rights of free citizenship on which every Greek set a high value. He would also, if he had by this time composed his history, or any considerable portion of it, begin to make it known by recitation among his friends.
There is reason to believe that these first attempts were not received with much favour, and that it was in chagrin at his failure that he precipitately withdrew from his native town, and sought a refuge in Greece proper about B. His work won such approval that in the year B. At one of the recitations, it was said, the future historian Thucydides was present with his father, Olorus, and was so moved that he burst into tears, whereupon Herodotus remarked to the father--"Olorus, your son has a natural enthusiasm for letters.
Athens was at this time the centre of intellectual life, and could boast an almost unique galaxy of talent--Pericles, Thucydides the son of Melesias, Aspasia, Antiphon, the musician Damon, Pheidias, Protagoras, Zeno, Cratinus, Crates, Euripides and Sophocles. Accepted into this brilliant society, on familiar terms with all probably, as he certainly was with Olorus, Thucydides and Sophocles, he must have been tempted, like many another foreigner, to make Athens his permanent home.
It is to his credit that he did not yield to this temptation. At Athens he must have been a dilettante, an idler, without political rights or duties. As such he would have soon ceased to be respected in a society where literature was not recognized as a separate profession, where a Socrates served in the infantry, a Sophocles commanded fleets, a Thucydides was general of an army, and an Antiphon was for a time at the head of the state. Men were not men according to Greek notions unless they were citizens; and Herodotus, aware of this, probably sharing in the feeling, was anxious, having lost his political status at Halicarnassus, to obtain such status elsewhere.
At Athens the franchise, jealously guarded at this period, was not to be attained without great expense and difficulty. Accordingly, in the spring of the following year he sailed from Athens with the colonists who went out to found the colony of Thurii see PERICLES , and became a citizen of the new town.
From this point of his career, when he had reached the age of forty, we lose sight of him almost wholly. He seems to have made but few journeys, one to Crotona, one to Metapontum, and one to Athens about B. He may also have composed at Thurii that special work on the history of Assyria to which he twice refers in his first book, and which is quoted by Aristotle.
It has been supposed by many that he lived to a great age, and argued that "the never-to-be-mistaken fundamental tone of his performance is the quiet talkativeness of a highly cultivated, tolerant, intelligent, old man" Dahlmann. But the indications derived from the later touches added to his work, which form the sole evidence on the subject, would rather lead to the conclusion that his life was not very prolonged. There is nothing in the nine books which may not have been written as early as B.