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In the run-up to the 1 July presidential election in Mexico, they question every aspect of the bilateral relationship. Hide Footnote By large margins, Mexicans dislike Trump. Among the 85 per cent who have heard of the U. Antipathy for Trump is translating into distrust of the U. The same pollster found that 66 per cent of Mexicans had a favourable opinion of the U.
One protester at an anti-Trump march explained as follows:. I admire the American people very much …. The problem in Mexico is that our leaders have stolen so much that now we have little left to fight back against Trump and his policies. Enhanced enforcement and surveillance explain part of the decline, as does a resort to more remote and dangerous routes by those travelling north. The Trump administration has shown itself determined to curb arrivals from Mexico, the Northern Triangle and the Caribbean.
Over the next year and a half, the U. Department of Homeland Security, 20 November A decision in late February by the U. Democrats appear willing to back the funding proposal, but only in exchange for full permanent protection, which should include a path to citizenship for 1. On the Supreme Court ruling see, Joseph P. Meanwhile, Mexico is absorbing migratory pressure from its southern neighbours, but not without repercussions. Xenophobia is spreading across the southern states as anger festers about the arrival of unprecedented numbers of Central Americans insufficiently supported by the state.
After the wave of unaccompanied children arrived at the U. Due largely to increased surveillance along the U. That figure fell to 75, in and 76, in the last year of his term. During fiscal year , the U. Mexico increased repatriations from 91, to , in and , in During the fiscal year , Mexico deported 20, more Northern Triangle citizens than the U. Tougher border enforcement and detention regimes have also led to widespread abuse of those in transit by authorities and criminals.
Hide Footnote Almost one third of the women surveyed by MSF had been sexually assaulted while in transit. But one study shows some 99 per cent of the perpetrators get away scot free: of the 5, crimes against migrants reported in Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Sonora, Coahuila and at the federal level, the Washington Office for Latin America found evidence of only 49 court sentences.
Crisis Group gathered testimony about typical abuses on a visit to Medias Aguas, a small town in the state of Veracruz where the migrant route from Tenosique, in the Tabasco jungle, joins the route from Tapachula, near the Chiapas coast. Most of those in transit whom Crisis Group encountered were Honduran citizens. Two had arrived in Medias Aguas walking and hitch-hiking after the train in which they were travelling derailed. One left Honduras looking for opportunities in the U.
Another migrant said he was fleeing violence, but also doubted he would make it to the U. These and other Central Americans reported that the main danger on the freight trains they use to travel north, the so-called Beast, is the numerous migration officials who stop and board the trains to detain undocumented migrants. Migrant and refugee activists have recorded reports of verbal and physical abuse allegedly committed by INM officials using Taser guns to threaten and control the travellers.
Central American gang members who board the trains and charge fees in sections of the route between Tenosique and Palenque also threaten those in transit, as do raiders who jump into the train in the tunnels between Orizaba and Puebla. As these cases suggest, greater numbers of Central Americans have decided to stay in Mexico, in some instances applying for refugee status there, especially since Trump took office. Hide Footnote During his first days as U. The White House trumpets its view that fear is the most effective deterrent of undocumented immigration.
The number of migrants arrested without a criminal record has more than doubled since , increasing from 5, to 13, in Customs and Border Protection, 9 January On the established use of fear as a migration deterrence policy on the U. Migrants and refugees along the routes to the U. Hide Footnote In the countries that individuals are leaving, there is likewise ambient dread of what might await them in the U. According to the U. Border Patrol, the number of apprehensions of undocumented migrants at the border fell significantly during fiscal year , from a monthly average of 57, apprehensions before Trump took power to an average of 23, afterward.
The first five months of fiscal year October to February have seen an uptick, however, with a monthly average of 37, apprehensions — though this number is still far from the highs recorded in and Customs and Border Protection, 8 March Altered patterns in remittances sent by foreign residents in the U.
According to the World Bank, the continuous increase in remittances from the U. Hide Footnote Instead of paying smugglers to bring family and friends into the U. Mexico is frequently portrayed as a country that celebrates mestizaje miscegenation and cultural hybridity. But policies and social attitudes in Mexico have long discriminated against its indigenous people, accounting in large part for the Zapatista uprising in Chiapas in Hide Footnote A year later, public acceptance of discrimination against Central Americans was widespread in towns such as Tapachula, the main border city near Guatemala and economic hub of the wealthy agricultural region of Soconusco.
Hide Footnote residents also said participation of locals was not limited to the poor. Hide Footnote Part of the local business community has continued to denounce the presence of Central Americans in criminal gangs, even though many members are said to be Mexican. Central American consular staff in Tapachula recognise that some co-nationals are indeed involved in crime, but they report that at public events, Mexican local officials point the finger at Central Americans for most of the insecurity and economic problems on the southern border.
Hide Footnote This sentiment appears to be shared by the local press and part of the population. Residents of Tenosique, for example, were quick to accuse Central American migrants for the 31 May strangulation of a well-liked butcher. Hide Footnote The murder sparked two anti-migrant marches in Tenosique, with protesters demanding the immediate expulsion of Central Americans. Hide Footnote Some residents zeroed in on an Afro-Caribbean Honduran man as the suspect, although evidence has since indicated that Central Americans were not involved in the killing.
Hide Footnote This figure amounts to 0. Refugee and migrant support organisations have denounced what they see as harassment and bureaucratic obstacles from the INM. The shelter says the clergyman was accused because he picks up Central Americans on the road between the El Ceibo migration station and the shelter to protect them from dangers including rape, robberies, forced disappearance, murder and kidnapping.
La 72 was the main organiser of the Viacrucis Migrante march, which President Trump denounced in early April as an effort to flout border controls. Low-key efforts by public officials to block the work of groups supporting migrants and refugees reportedly are also frequent. Resentment of efforts to protect Central Americans is also spreading in districts along the southern border that are home to such shelters. During the day the shelter puts its occupants out in the street, where neighbours believe they are loitering with ill intent. One resident expressed gratitude to the state for newly installed sewers, but she was indignant that the shelter offers facilities that she and her neighbours lack — such as a sidewalk, street lighting and a playing field.
She worried that the lack of safe public spaces would make her children vulnerable to criminal recruitment. Another Tapachulan, a naval officer, said his neighbours do not expect their voices to be heard as those of migrant activists are. He expressed acute concern about illegal drug transactions in the streets close to the shelter.
According to one municipal official in Tenosique, locals are irritated when they see an international NGO or UN agency providing refugees or migrants with aid while giving little consideration to the native-born poor. Hide Footnote A local tourist guide summed up the deepening resentment as follows:.
We are becoming a filter, a barrier, so Trump does not have to build the wall, but this is no guarantee my kids will grow up in the Tenosique I grew up in. There are a lot of strange people arriving with different cultures, and there is no guarantee that we and our lifestyle will have security. All the guarantees are for the refugees. But the highly militarised campaign has not improved security. The south of Mexico is no exception. Even as the army and police kill or capture crime bosses, there is just as much intra- and inter-cartel violence, if not more, in Tabasco, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Chiapas, Veracruz and Oaxaca.
Homicide has risen across the nation, with murder totals in the highest since modern criminal record-keeping began in Across the south, the diversification of illicit economies has led to a sharp rise in various violent offences. Oaxaca, Quintana Roo and Veracruz have murder rates that exceed the national average and are rising. Hide Footnote The incidence of kidnapping in southern states is far above the national average and has skyrocketed since See Appendix F.
Hide Footnote Cases of extortion in Tabasco were over twice the national average in But the southern border region does not produce opiates, and there is not much commerce in these substances there. Evidence suggests, furthermore, that it is scarcity — more than abundance — of a valuable illegal drug such as cocaine that leads to more violence. Hide Footnote Andean cocaine is doubtless one of the many illicit goods crossing the southern border, maybe in greater quantities than ever. Much of this cocaine is reported to go ashore in Central America, and then transported overland into Mexico.
Crisis Group interview, senior government official, Guatemala City, 11 December, Hide Footnote Nevertheless, Crisis Group fieldwork along the main migratory and commercial routes suggests that violence in the region stems primarily though not always from struggles among criminal groups over local protection rackets, involving small businesses but also migrant smuggling, rather than transnational trafficking. Until , the Zetas cartel was reportedly the dominant force in the extortion of those in transit along the route from Tenosique to Medias Aguas.
Other major criminal organisations are making inroads as well. Once a strict hierarchy controlling illegal migration and the drug trade across southern Veracruz and Tabasco, the Zetas are now a network of unstable cells with interests in oil theft, train robbery, kidnapping, protection rackets, human trafficking for sexual or child exploitation, and work as mercenaries for new and bigger players.
The town of Tenosique exhibits the increased diversity in criminal actors. In June , for example, the Tabasco state police asked for military assistance to raid a house next to the railroad in Tenosique, where they seized kg of marijuana and a weapons cache. Hide Footnote Other residents said that local gangs are trying to recruit teenagers in poor neighbourhoods. Hide Footnote On 21 June, twelve members of a cartel cell were arrested for the murder of five people. Among the suspects are two minors who confessed that they had been forced to eat the flesh of their victims as an initiation rite, according to local prosecutors.
Hide Footnote In Villahermosa, as Crisis Group witnessed, families no longer allow children to play outdoors; residents avoid wearing jewellery or taking walks at night. According to the same survey, residents of Coatzacoalcos, a port city in Veracruz, have the second highest perception of insecurity, in large part because of a bloody fight for supremacy between the Zetas and Jalisco New Generation Cartel. Hide Footnote Until , the city had a low homicide rate by Mexican standards, but the murder rate has since risen to 27 per , people, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Geography INEGI , slightly higher than the national rate.
In the past, Mexican criminal organisations communicated exclusively through violence and the choice of victims. But as these organisations became stronger between and , they started to sign their messages. Hide Footnote In subsequent months, alleged members of both gangs have been killed in the port city and elsewhere in Veracruz, while civilians have received more and scarier threats.
Westward on the highway, residents in the town of Acayucan also note the diminishing clout of the Zetas and the growing power of the Jalisco New Generation Cartel. Hide Footnote One journalist cited the competition among cartels, as well as the emergence of a new generation enlisted as children by the Zetas for small tasks, but who are now establishing their own lines of illicit business. These shifts in power in the underworld reverberate in the realm of migrant smuggling. But in the smuggler stopped offering him work and then disappeared.
Some months later, the driver found out the smuggler had been killed. Hide Footnote Numerous observers underline that migrant smuggling is becoming more transnationally integrated, sophisticated and expensive. In May , smugglers were reportedly offering to transport migrants from El Salvador to the U.
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This information is similar to data from journalistic reports and the Secretariat of Social Development in Mexico. Hondurans, who generally cannot afford these fees, are now the main travellers on the freight train called the Beast. Hondurans are also the most vulnerable to discrimination and attacks, in part because of the Afro-Caribbean ethnic heritage of many of those travelling, according to Central American diplomatic sources.
Hide Footnote One Honduran among a group disembarking from a train from Ixtepec said he had been robbed in Tapachula, but forged ahead to Arriaga. There he met another group of migrants, one of whom also had been held up on the railroad. They decided to walk five days to Reforma de Pineda, where they ate for the first time in days before boarding the Beast for Ixtepec. He said he felt lucky because an earthquake in southern Mexico had distracted officials and criminals from their usual extortion.
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Hide Footnote But there has been little clarity as to the organisational structure behind these operations. The expansion of gangs into southern Mexico appears primarily to be a profit-driven response to the opportunity of preying on extraordinarily vulnerable people, or a flight from crackdowns by the authorities in their home countries. In either case, gangs are negotiating space for their activities with drug trafficking cartels, even though the more alarmist accounts exaggerate the extent of their presence.
There are three main reported types of Central American gang presence in Mexico. First, gang leaders from El Salvador flee persecution from security forces in their country due to conflict with other gangs or rivalries within their own groups, and seek safety in Mexico. Howard Cotto, the Salvadoran police chief, acknowledged this and said the fugitives continue ordering criminal actions in El Salvador from abroad. Increasingly, members of the Salvadoran security forces are being detected among migrants as they flee violence back home. At least two such cases are detected monthly in the monitoring carried out by the NGO Voces Mesoamericanas.
Hide Footnote This movement of gang leaders seems to have produced little violence in Mexico until recently, when Shyboy, as the alleged head of a purported splinter group from the MS is known, was killed in Mexico City in March A second group comprises lower-ranking Central American gang members who flee to Mexico with the aim of defecting, [fn] Crisis Group interviews, Chiapas, March They reportedly coordinate with Mexican criminal groups to traffic humans and physically, psychologically or sexually exploit their most unfortunate victims. The growing cross-border presence of Central American gangs has been made possible by the demise of the Sinaloa Cartel, which once ran most of the drug trafficking across the Guatemalan border, especially cocaine from Tapachula to Medias Aguas via Ixtepec, but has now largely vacated the region.
In total, the cartel is estimated to have ceded control of over half the Mexican territory it dominated before the extradition to the U. These areas have been taken over by splinters of the Zetas, the Jalisco New Generation Cartel, local criminal groups and the expansionist Central American gangs, above all the MS and the Barrio In Tapachula, Frontera Comalapa and Metapa, arrests of suspected members of MS and Barrio 18 increased from fourteen in to during the first half of , according to the Secretariat of Security and Citizen Protection of Chiapas.
Media sources report an increase from fourteen murders by gangs in the whole of to 28 in just the first half of Hide Footnote These measures have not stopped gangs from robbing migrants and refugees or from selling drugs especially marijuana near the shelter. She realised that a gang had bought two houses across the street to monitor the shelter. After she sounded the alarm, the government sent an army detachment, as well as INM officials and the prosecutor for crimes against migrants, to investigate. The gang appeared to retreat. But following other episodes when she thought the shelter was being watched, Matus requested periodic inspections from state prosecutors and invested in sixteen cameras around the shelter.
As an added security measure, she published photographs of migrants she suspected had worked for Central American gangs or the Zetas. Amid these tensions, the shelter stopped receiving migrants and asylum applicants and closed its doors in October Meanwhile, in the border municipality of Frontera Comalapa, Central American gangs appear to have the sole stake in the extortion and exploitation of migrants and refugees.
Efforts by the Jesuit Services for Migrants and Refugees to erect a series of shelters are now under threat. In under four years, the Jesuits have built two shelters one for migrants and another for asylum applicants, financed by the UNHCR , a dining room, and a centre offering legal, psychosocial and administrative advice to migrants and refugees. Each clica and program seeks its own means of income, providing for diverse sizes, activities and power.
Hide Footnote The same happened in June and July As a preventive measure, the Jesuits decided to close their service for families. But the priests live in fear of being spied on by gang members.
Letting the maras settle in the border area helps create public support for militarisation. It increases both the fear of migrants and the fear felt by migrants, who are afraid of being here with the same maras who persecute them there.
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This would help to stop refugee status applications and migration flows in a very cheap way, simply creating these fears. Numerous media reports of crimes committed by Central American gangs have led to coordination between local and federal security forces and an exchange of information with Guatemala, especially its military. Hide Footnote The risk of this approach is that Mexico will follow the Central American states in meeting the spread of gangs with expanded mano dura iron fist policies in the south of the country, such as the militarisation of public security and mass arrests based on physical appearance.
Where applied, these policies have led to prison overcrowding and communities alienated from local police forces, while failing to curb violent crime. Current U. Although many have abandoned all hope of reaching the U. More often than not, those fleeing violence find themselves trapped in places that expose them to new criminal threats rather than offer them greater security.
In , Mexico received 8, requests for refugee status, of which 3, were granted. In , the total number of requests reached 14,, with 1, granted. Apparently, the number of approvals of Venezuelan applications has risen because COMAR officials recognise Venezuela is suffering generalised violence, a situation they do not discern in Honduras, El Salvador or Guatemala. Hide Footnote This provision was never negotiated with the Mexican government. Crisis Group interview via electronic communication, Vidal Llerenas, federal deputy, 23 February Hide Footnote The effect of this executive order, as well as measures purportedly aimed at preventing terrorists from abusing U.
Hide Footnote Human rights organisations have asserted that Customs and Border Protection agents have unlawfully turned away an undetermined number of asylum seekers. Some seeking asylum in the U. Some have decided to apply for refugee status or other means of staying legally in Mexico, such as the humanitarian residence permits granted, until December , to 2, Haitian citizens by the state of Baja California. Meanwhile, members of the U. Hide Footnote On 26 July , the House of Representatives Judiciary Committee approved for consideration by the full House a bill that would do just that.
Hide Footnote The bill has attracted opposition from human rights activists concerned about the U. Hide Footnote The U. There are some exceptions to the noted timeframes.
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Hide Footnote The process should not last more than 45 days, during which the applicant cannot be removed from Mexico and must provide evidence to support his or her petition. Applicants are entitled to legal representation during the process, at the end of which COMAR must issue a resolution justifying its decision to grant or reject refugee status or complementary protection.
Applicants can ask for a hearing if rejected. If refugee status or complementary protection is granted, the person is entitled to request permanent residence in Mexico. According to the commission, the INM held claimants, including children, in detention centres while their requests were being considered, in some cases for as long as days. Even applicants who manage to get help from UNHCR, or shelter and legal assistance from the Catholic Church or human rights organisations, must navigate a tortuous application process, which ends up recognising the request in well under half of all cases.
Hide Footnote From the perspective of people escaping violence, the Mexican government seems intent on wearing down their willpower. For Mexican officials, on the other hand, the problem is the lack of human and financial resources needed to deal with a larger pool of applications. This increase in applicants has also generated basic security problems for refugees and migrants, as well as for civil society initiatives aimed at protecting people in transit. Managers of migrant shelters and Central American diplomats complain that COMAR has granted refugee status to criminals and suspected gang members.
Hide Footnote The agency has tried to avoid these mistakes, and it is working with the INM, police and the Mexican intelligence service to screen applicants for criminal backgrounds. But heightened security concerns appear to further depress the number of applications that are granted.
At the same time, COMAR lacks the resources to confront organised crime or prevent other forms of violence against those applying for protection. Hide Footnote Despite current limitations, a priority for the agency and other relevant state bodies should be to improve security for those whose lives are endangered by organised crime according to gender-specific and age-appropriate needs, and deter the threat of recruitment by criminal groups through employment and community development programs.
Six countries in the region, including Mexico and five Central American states, have already taken a step in this direction by signing up late in to a UNHCR-backed program aimed at protecting refugees and migrants in transit and sharing the responsibility for handling migration flows. Hide Footnote For now, limited cooperation between Mexico and the source countries of migrants and refugees is hindering effective responses to threats faced by people in transit.
While the U. In the same spirit, the U. They should urgently assist the three Northern Triangle countries and Mexico in developing new programs to help them reintegrate deportees in their home countries and refugees abroad, including through initiatives to help them get access to health care, training, employment and psychosocial support when necessary. To spread the burden of migration flows, the U. Financial and logistical support to neighbouring countries such as Panama and Costa Rica, as well as to other Latin American countries that agree to take a share of refugees, would help cushion the impact of increasingly restrictive immigration policies in more traditional destinations.
At the same time, both sides of what is now a tense bilateral standoff have threatened to suspend cooperation on those matters if they do not get what they want from an overall renegotiation of their relationship. Migrants, refugees and native-born residents along the southern Mexican border are the principal victims of the troubles in this partnership.
Since , Mexico has served as the main buffer against flows of Central American migrants, a haven for refugees from the same countries and a willing ally in the U. Yet the visceral anti-immigration tone of the Trump presidency has helped turn southern Mexico into a warehouse for people escaping poverty and violence. More applications for refugee status than ever were filed in Mexico in , as already dire security conditions worsened across the southern states.
Towns aggrieved by the arrival of newcomers from Central America, among them members of violent street gangs, have lurched toward xenophobia, while migrant shelters have found themselves forced to adopt tougher security measures. A more lenient U. In the absence of such a shift, Mexico must look to other nations, including its Central American neighbours, for help in handling the migration flows, preventing migrants suffering harm, providing protection to refugees and distributing the burden across various countries.
Over the long run, only the reduction of chronic violence in the Northern Triangle countries, above all El Salvador and Honduras, will help reduce levels of flight. As Crisis Group has argued, both of these countries will continue to need support for programs to bring development to afflicted communities, rehabilitate jailed gang members, and enhance employment and educational opportunities for young people at risk of drifting into gang life.
With Mexico as a whole facing its worst homicide rates for at least twenty years, no easy solutions to the current insecurity of the southern states are at hand. In neighbouring countries, this last measure has served only to heighten violence and strengthen the command-and-control structures of organised crime. Note: Deportees by Mexico include the total number of returnees, assisted returnees and assisted minor returnees. International humanitarian support is needed and regional powers should push for a negotiated transition, including through threats of targeted sanctions.
Venezuelans are fleeing hunger and poverty by the hundreds of thousands, while disease and crime are spreading across borders. Why did it happen? Lower oil prices, corruption and mismanagement have devastated the economy. A deeply unpopular government, aware that it can no longer win competitive elections, has opted for repression.
Attempts to negotiate an agreement between the government and opposition have foundered. Financial collapse and hyperinflation make Venezuela an economic disaster zone. The crisis is no longer confined to one nation: refugees and migrants are streaming into neighbouring countries. The priority is international support for humanitarian assistance along the borders. A negotiated transition is essential to restore representative politics and socio-economic well-being. This requires outside pressure, including threats of targeted sanctions and realistic demands on the Maduro government, from a coalition led by regional governments in the Lima Group.
Hyperinflation has compounded the scarcity of food and medicines. Epidemics of preventable diseases and a child malnutrition crisis are increasingly deadly. Violent crime has spiked. An estimated four million Venezuelans have emigrated, with tens of thousands crossing the border with Colombia each month in search of a new home. They also should lobby, ideally together with China, for renewed government-opposition talks aimed at reforms enabling more representative politics and economic recovery; threatening further sanctions might help push the government toward concessions.
It is also blocking efforts to provide food and medical aid. Information that challenges official accounts is brushed aside: the state publishes neither reliable economic data nor credible health statistics. A full-scale default on the foreign debt appears but a matter of time. Scarcity and hunger have led to increased, albeit still sporadic, looting. In its quest for hard currency, the government has set aside over , square kilometres for mining.
Its lack of regulation breeds collusion among the military, criminal gangs and Colombian guerrillas. Migrants heading to Colombia must dodge competing state security forces and armed irregulars in border areas. Malaria is again common and spreading across borders. Diseases that had been eradicated, such as measles and diphtheria, have returned. There was modest optimism at the start of talks between the government and opposition during December and January Despite its dismal economic record, the government occupies a strong position.
The Venezuelan opposition is divided and rudderless. A sizeable segment of the electorate will vote for Maduro, either out of loyalty or due to dependence on the government for food rations and other subsidised goods. Harder-line opposition factions hope for a U. The first priority is to alleviate the human suffering.
The Maduro government should accept the creation of a tripartite group, proposed by humanitarian groups, comprising representatives of the Venezuelan state, civil society and specialised UN bodies, which would coordinate the provision of humanitarian assistance. The second priority is to revive talks between government and opposition. Ideally, the government would postpone forthcoming presidential elections, but even if the polls go ahead, the priority afterward should be a swift return to meaningful negotiations.
Thus, the issue of safe replacement arises, causing the need for examining and improving the policies and strategies regarding immigration and helping these individuals integrate into new societies. Immigration and Refugee Policy: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice is an authoritative resource for the latest research on the challenges, risks, and policies of current relocation and refugee flows and security problems, in relation to these aspects of immigration. Additionally, techniques for assimilating immigrants into important foundations of society, such as educational programs and healthcare systems, is examined.
Highlighting a range of pertinent topics such as civil protection, humanitarian aid, and the refugee resettlement process, this publication is an ideal reference source for policymakers, managers, academicians, practitioners, and graduate-level students interested in current immigrant and refugee policies. Active political engagement requires the youth of today to begin their journeys now to be leaders of tomorrow.
Young individuals are instrumental in providing valuable insight into issues locally as well as on a national and international level. There is an intrinsic value in upholding their right to participate in decisions that affect their daily lives and their communities, and the content within this publication supports this by focusing on topics such as good citizenship, youth empowerment, democratic awareness, political climate, and socio-economic development.
It is designed for researchers, academics, policymakers, government officials, and professionals whose interests center on the engagement of youth in active citizenship roles. Emily B. As the internet and its applications grow more sophisticated and widespread, so too do the strategies of modern terrorist groups. The existence of the dark web adds to the online arsenal of groups using digital networks and sites to promulgate ideology or recruit supporters. It is necessary to understand how terrorist cells are using and adapting online tools in order to counteract their efforts.
Utilization of New Technologies in Global Terror: Emerging Research and Opportunities is an informative resource that explores new developments in technological advancements and the progression of terror organizations while also examining non-government activist organizations and their new role in protecting internet freedom and combating cyberterrorism. Featuring relevant topics such as social media, cyber threats, and counterterrorism, this publication will benefit government officials, political scientists, policymakers, researchers, academicians, and graduate students interested in political science, mass communication, and cyberwarfare.
Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research is slowly yet steadily revolutionizing traditional education. However, multidisciplinary research can and will also improve the extent to which a country can protect its critical and vital assets. Applying Methods of Scientific Inquiry Into Intelligence, Security, and Counterterrorism is an essential scholarly publication that provides personnel directly working in the fields of intelligence, law enforcement, and science with the opportunity to understand the multidisciplinary nature of intelligence and science in order to improve current intelligence activities and contribute to the protection of the nation.
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Memory, Identity, and Nationalism in European Regions. Memory studies is a well-established academic discipline, but the revised issue of ethnicity poses a new set of research questions, particularly in relation to the problem of the operational character of memory and ethnicity in the context of traumatized identity. Contemporary political processes in Europe, populism, and nationalism, in addition to ethnic challenges in the form of demographic shifts have created a situation in which new national identities have been developed simultaneously with emerging competitive historical memories.
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The tactical organization and protection of resources is a vital component for any governmental entity. Effectively managing national security through various networks ensures the highest level of protection and defense for citizens and classified information. National Security: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice is an authoritative resource for the latest research on the multiple dimensions of national security, including the political, physical, economic, ecological, and computational dimensions. Highlighting a range of pertinent topics such as data breaches, surveillance, and threat detection, this publication is an ideal reference source for government officials, law enforcement, professionals, researchers, IT professionals, academicians, and graduate-level students seeking current research on the various aspects of national security.
Uche T. Political campaigning affects numerous realms under the communication umbrella with each channel seeking to influence as many individuals as possible. In higher education, there is a growing scholarly interest in communication issues and subjects, especially on the role of music, in the political arena. Music and Messaging in the African Political Arena provides innovative insights into providing music and songs as an integral part of sending political messages to a broader spectrum of audiences, especially during political campaigns.
The content within this publication covers such topics as framing theory, national identity, and ethnic politics, and is designed for politicians, campaign managers, political communication scholars, researchers, and students. Creating transparency between government and citizens through outreach and engagement initiatives is critical to promoting community development and is also an essential part of a democratic society.
This can be achieved through a number of methods including public policy, urban development, artistic endeavors, and digital platforms. Civic Engagement and Politics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is a vital reference source that examines civic engagement practices in social, political, and non-political contexts. As the world is now undergoing a transformation, interdisciplinary collaboration, participation, community-based participatory research, partnerships, and co-creation have become more common than focused domains.
Highlighting a range of topics such as social media and politics, civic activism, and public administration, this multi-volume book is geared toward government officials, leaders, practitioners, policymakers, academicians, and researchers interested in active citizen participation and politics. Global politics has transformed in recent years due to a rise in nationalist ideology, the breakdown of multiple societies, and even nation-state legitimacy.
The nation-state, arguably, has been in question for much of the digital age, as citizens become transnational and claim loyalty to many different groups, causes, and in some cases, states. Thus, politics that accompany diasporic communities have become increasingly important focal points of comparative and political science research. Global Diaspora Politics and Social Movements: Emerging Research and Opportunities provides innovative insights into the dispersion of political and social groups across the world through various research methods such as case studies.
This publication examines migration politics, security policy, and social movements. It is designed for academicians, policymakers, government officials, researchers, and students, and covers topics centered on the distribution of social groups and political groups. Violent Extremism: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice. Advances in digital and other technologies have provided ample positive impacts to modern society; however, in addition to such benefits, these innovations have inadvertently created a new venue for terrorist activities.
Examining violent extremism through a critical and academic perspective can lead to a better understanding of its foundations and implications. Violent Extremism: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice is a critical source of academic knowledge on the social, psychological, and political aspects of radicalization and terrorist recruitment. Highlighting a range of pertinent topics such as counterterrorism, propaganda, and online activism, this publication is an ideal reference source for researchers, analysts, intelligence officers, policymakers, academicians, researchers, and graduate-level students interested in current research on violent extremism.
In consequence, the issue of safe relocation arises, leading to the need for new policies and strategies regarding immigration. Immigration and the Current Social, Political, and Economic Climate: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice is a timely reference source on the challenges, risks, and policies of current relocation and refugee flows and addresses the social, political, and economic problems in relation to these aspects of immigration.
Highlighting a range of pertinent topics such as political refugees, human rights, and economic equity, this publication is an ideal reference source for policymakers, managers, academicians, practitioners, and graduate-level students interested in the current state of immigration from social, political, and economic perspectives. Academic disciplines perceive tranquility and a sense of contentment differently among themselves and therefore contribute to peace-building initiatives differently. Peace is not merely a function of education or a tool that produces amicable systems, but rather a concept that educational contributions can help societies progress to a more peaceful existence.
The Handbook of Research on Promoting Peace Through Practice, Academia, and the Arts aims to provide readers with a concise overview of proactive positive peace models and practices to counter the overemphasis on merely ending wars as a solution. While approaching peace-building through multiple vantage points and academic fields such as the humanities, arts, social sciences, and theology, this valuable resource promotes peace-building as a cooperative effort. This publication is a vital reference work for humanitarian workers, leaders, educators, policymakers, academicians, undergraduate and graduate-level students, and researchers.
Trusted by scholars for over 70 years, the latest edition of CQ Almanac provides a nonpartisan look at the issues that mattered most in with original narrative accounts of the major legislative efforts carried out by lawmakers during the congressional session. Arranged thematically, it organizes, distills, and cross-indexes for permanent reference the full year in Congress and in national politics.
CQ Almanac has been providing unbiased coverage of Capitol Hill for over 70 years. Get the ultimate in political analysis with the CQ Almanac Archive, which includes every volume dating back to On top of volume and topic browsing, the Archive also includes a useful policy browse feature. This tool allows researchers to follow important legislative issues across decades to better place current debates in context. The existing literature, in its ambition to make sense of Chinese security strategic thinking and behaviour, focuses on understanding Chinese strategic intentions, power tools, instruments of influence and threat perceptions and which interests and world views they are based on.
We include a diverse range of contributions from America, Australia, Europe and Japan to cover all major regional perspectives. We also include major theoretical approaches, such as realist and liberal approaches to Chinese security, English school contributions and constructivist analyses. Each volume will also include work written by Chinese scholars, including analysts in a policy-making role to cover the Chinese perspectives on Chinese security.
The scholarly debates that help clarify and understand Chinese security strategies focus first on conceptual debates about similarities and differences between Chinese security strategic thinking compared to the thinking dominating Western tradition and practice. The study of ethnic conflict saw its heyday in the aftermath of the Cold War with a proliferation of theories about its causes and management. But its origins as a subject of academic inquiry not only predate the end of the Cold War but also its inception, with some of the earliest works of significance emerging as far back as the end of the First World War.
Since then, the field has become both multidisciplinary in the sense of different disciplinary perspectives engaging individually with ethnic conflict as an object of study and interdisciplinary with novel insights emerging from the combination of various disciplinary approaches. In a similar vein, the range of methods applied to the study of ethnic conflict ranges from the purely theoretical, to the single ethnographic case study, to large statistical analyses, and various combinations thereof.
While the study of ethnic conflict may have lost some of its early dynamism, as an empirical manifestation of political crisis it has, if anything, gained in importance and, alas, is unlikely to decline in relevance. Now, this new four-volume collection from Routledge answers the growing need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of the different approaches to the study of ethnic conflict, and to offer a comprehensive and representative overview, combining foundational texts with the very best cutting-edge contemporary scholarship. Ethnic Conflict is fully indexed and includes a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context.
It is an essential reference work and is destined to be valued by scholars and students—as well as policy-makers and practitioners—as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource. Paul D. This book of Politics in Asia is designed to serve as a comprehensive reference guide to politics in Asia. A comprehensive, but accessible, introduction to political change and processes in Southeast Asia. Presents an overview of the past, present, and possible future of the constitutional right to freedom of the press.
Explores what freedom of the press is, its history in colonial times, its meaning in the Constitution, and current controversial issues challenging the boundaries of this freedom. Examines how societies have fared under and dealt with the major political-economic systems that have operated throughout history. This book shows how revolutionaries have changed the world, for both good and evil. This book will be of interest to academics and students who study political science, ecological economics, international politics and socialism.
The book covers that each society that makes up the global economic system is not inevitably going to be assimilated into the globalization process. Offers a comprehensive political economy approach to the study of the welfare state and inequality. Traces the links between the origin of capitalism and globalization, ecological degradation and the current crisis. This book uniquely organizes the study of interpersonal communication around the concepts of nurturing and control in all family relationships, across all family forms, and their relationships to psychological processes and communicative outcomes.
Provides an interactive presentation of the theory and skills of interpersonal communication, with integrated discussions of diversity, ethics, workplace issues, and technology. Provides an overview of the evolution of the political thought through different historical periods, giving an insight into the sociological and political conditions of the times that shaped the political. This book offers an economical and useful approach to modern political thought.
Political and Economic Systems: Socialism and Communism. Socialism is the watchword and the catchword of our day; this book is an account of idealism and cynicism, revolution and repression, power and powerlessness. Examines how socioeconomic and institutional factors shaped the development of Socialism and its two contending variants of Social Democracy and Communism.
Scarcity is portrayed as natural rather than human induced; this is a significant book in the light of the growing water crisis throughout the world. This book will be of value to students and for all those with an interest in the region, and to those concerned with the environmental issues of the politics of water scarcity. It provides a fascinating insight into how terrorist 'cells' operate and what they might do in the future. Describing how terrorists operate and how they differ from other criminals, it provides an outline of how terrorism investigations should be conducted.
Examines the political agendas, actions, and religious beliefs of individuals and groups who, throughout history, have resorted to violent actions in order to generate fear and gain their objectives. This book provides the comprehensive analysis of global governance; provides a critical examination of the most important institutions of global governance in the world today. Explores the nature and problems of global governance as we enter the next millennium. Presents an overview of democracy as a political system, including an historical discussion of democracies throughout the world.
This book is a short account of the history of the doctrine, practices, and institutions of democracy; examines democracy, one of the most prevalent forms of government today, including a brief history and introductions of the leaders who have embodied it across the globe. Reimagining global abortion politics: A social justice perspective.
What are the contemporary issues in abortion politics globally? What factors explain variations in access to abortion between and within different countries? This text provides a transnationally-focused, interdisciplinary analysis of trends in abortion politics using case studies from around the global north and south. It considers how societal influences, such as religion, nationalism and culture, impact abortion law and access.
It explores the impact of international human rights norms, the increasing displacement of people due to conflict and crisis and the role of activists on law reform and access. The book concludes by considering the future of abortion politics through the more holistic lens of reproductive justice. Utilising a unique interdisciplinary approach, this book provides a major contribution to the knowledge base on abortion politics globally.
It provides an accessible, informative and engaging text for academics, policy makers and readers interested in abortion politics. China firmly believes in the primacy of the right to subsistence and development, trying to reconcile its national exigencies with the demands of universal human rights. Moreover, China has also actively fulfilled its international human rights obligations through partnership with other countries over the past few decades.
It is poised to make greater contributions to world human rights protection. In China and Foreign Aid, the authors expound on the critical role that Chinese foreign aid plays in the global governance system. While unprecedented humanitarian crises undermine global peace and development, major aid donors from the West have scaled back on aid funding and left behind a lacuna. Since its establishment in the s, Chinese foreign aid has evolved with the times, departing from Eurocentric models and developing its own vision and philosophy.
The book traces the historical development of Chinese foreign aid in areas such as infrastructure, governance support, trade, agriculture, healthcare, environmental conservation, humanitarian work, education, and culture. Banding together the developing countries, China aspires to contribute her solutions for foreign aid to build a community with shared future for mankind. Driven by fast industrial developments and advancements in science and technology over the past few decades, global finance has become more powerful than ever before. However, the global financial crisis and its decade-long aftermath have brought to the foreground the issue of financial security, making it an indispensable part of global governance.
Terrorism has plagued modern society with countless issues. Ranging from politics to religion, terrorist organizations have used numerous means to manipulate humanity to the point of death and destruction. In alone, the world saw more than 20, incidences of terrorist attacks. With these atrocities fueling widespread fear amongst civilians and weighing heavier on world leaders, international organizations like the United Nations have been u rgently developing counter-terrorism measures. In the context of rapid globalization worldwide over the past few decades, China has been trying to gain a louder voice in the international community.
In China and Global Governance, He Yafei, a renowned career diplomat, reviews the origin and evolution of the concept of global governance and describes the gradual shift from the present governance by the West, its monopoly of global affairs, to joint governance by East and West, which champions multipolarity.
In this engaging and original book, John Clarke is in conversation with twelve leading scholars about the dynamics of thinking critically in the social sciences. The conversations range across many fields and explore the problems and possibilities of doing critical intellectual work in ways that are responsive to changing conditions.
By emphasizing the many voices in play, in conversation with, as well as against, others, Clarke challenges the individualising myth of the heroic intellectual. He underlines the value of thinking critically, collaboratively and dialogically. The book also provides access to a sound archive of the original conversations.
Women, Politics and the Public Sphere is a socio-historical analysis of the relationship between women, politics and the public sphere. It looks at the fault-lines established in the eighteenth century for later developments in social and political discourse and considers the implications for the political representation of women in the West and globally, highlighting how women public intellectuals now reflect much more social and cultural diversity. Covering the legacy of eighteenth-century intellectual groupings which were dominated by women such as members of the 'bluestocking circles' and other more radical intellectual and philosophical thinkers, the book focuses on women such as Catherine Macaulay and Mary Wollstonecraft.
These individuals and groups which emerged in the eighteenth century established 'intellectual spaces' for the emergence of women public intellectuals in subsequent centuries. What Works Now? Building substantially on the earlier, landmark text, What Works? Policy Press, , this book brings together key thinkers and researchers to provide a contemporary review of the aspirations and realities of evidence-informed policy and practice.
The text is clearly structured and provides sector-by-sector analysis of evidence use in policy-making and service delivery. It considers some cross-cutting themes, including a section of international commentaries, and concludes by looking at lessons from the past and prospects for the future. This book will be of interest to a wide range of social science researchers, students and practitioners as well as those interested in supporting more evidence-informed policy and practice. This book provides a theoretical, empirical, and practical account of health policy in China.
It draws on public policy perspectives to understand how and why policy developments have unfolded in the way that they have. Through an examination of workforce development, integrated care, and IT innovation, case studies provide a range of insights regarding current policy interventions as well as reflect on how such developments can be improved and sustained in the future. Looking to the future with a review and synthesis of policy recommendations regarding how China can improve its reform efforts, this book will be welcomed by academics, students and policy makers in the field.
This book focuses on social transformations as one of the central topics in the social sciences. The study of European social transformations is very valuable in the context of universal discussions within social sciences: explaining invariable, universal attributes of societies and examining changing attributes. The book consists of 20 chapters on European social transformations, written from the perspectives of distinguished scholars from such disciplines as economics, political science, educational science, geography, media and communication studies, public management and administration, social psychology and sociology.
The temporal and spatial range of the book is wide, including such global changes as time-space compression, focusing particularly on change processes in Europe during the last two decades. The book consists of four main parts, beginning with an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches, and then focusing separately on post-communist transformations, institutional drivers of social transformations in the European Union, and European transformations in the context of global processes.
The book presents current theoretical, empirical and methodological approaches that complement the scientific literature on social transformations. This book is both an invaluable resource for scholars and an indispensable teaching tool for use in the classroom and will be of interest to students, academics, and policy-makers studying how this diverse region has changed over recent years.
The Routledge Handbook of Asian Security Studies provides a detailed exploration of security dynamics in the three distinct subregions that comprise Asia, and also bridges the study of these regions by exploring the geopolitical links between each of them. This book will be of great interest to students of Asian politics, security studies, war and conflict studies, foreign policy and international relations generally. Over the last 30 years referendums have played an increasingly important role in determining government policy. Recent high profile referendums in Scotland, Catalonia and Ukraine have continued the movement towards independence referendums following decolonization and the end of the Cold War.
Covering other related areas such as recall, citizen juries and random selection, this compendium is an indispensable guide to referendums and the workings of modern democracy. Interest in pacifism—an idea with a long history in philosophical thought and in several religious traditions—is growing. The text will be invaluable to scholars and students, as well as to activists and general readers interested in peace, nonviolence, and critical perspectives on war and violence. The Routledge Handbook of Human Rights and Disasters provides the first comprehensive review of the role played by international human rights law in the prevention and management of natural and technological disasters.
Each chapter is written by a leading expert and offers a state-of-the-art overview of a significant topic within the field. In addition to focussing on the role of human rights obligations in disaster preparedness and response, the volume offers a broader perspective by examining how human rights law interacts with other legal regimes and by addressing the challenges facing humanitarian organizations. The Routledge Handbook of Politics in Asia is designed to serve as a comprehensive reference guide to politics in Asia.
Covering East, South, Southeast, and Central Asia, this handbook brings together the work of leading international academics to cover the political histories, institutions, economies, and cultures of the region. As an invaluable and all-inclusive resource, this handbook will be useful for students, scholars, researchers, and practitioners of Asian politics and comparative politics. Tsygankov, Andrei P. Part II investigates tools and actors that participate in policy making including diplomacy, military, media, and others. Routledge Handbook of Environmental Conflict and Peacebuilding.
The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of a large body of research examining the linkage between environmental scarcity, violent conflict, and cooperation. However, this environmental security polemic is still trying to deliver a well-defined approach to achieving peace. Studies are being undertaken to find the precise pathways by which cooperative actions are expected not only to pre-empt or moderate resource conflicts but also to help diffuse cooperative behaviour to other disputed issues. The recognition that environmental resources can contribute to violent conflict accentuates their potential significance as pathways for cooperation and the consolidation of peace in post-conflict societies.
Conceived as a single and reliable reference source which will be a vital resource for students, researchers, and policy makers alike, the Routledge Handbook of Environmental Conflict and Peacebuilding presents a wide range of chapters written by key thinkers in the field, organised into four key parts: Part I: Review of the concept and theories; Part II: Review of thematic approaches resources, scarcity, intervention, adaptation, and peacebuilding ; Part III: Case studies Middle East, Iraq, Jordan, Liberia, Nepal, Colombia, Philippines ; Part IV: Analytical challenges and future-oriented perspectives.
Enabling the reader to find a concise expert review on topics that are most likely to arise in the course of conducting research or policy making, this volume presents a truly global overview of the key issues and debates in environmental conflict and peacebuilding. In Asia, where authoritarian-developmental states have proliferated, statehood and social control are heavily contested in borderland spaces. As a result, in the post-Cold War world, borders have not only redefined Asian incomes and mobilities, they have also rekindled neighbouring relations and raised questions about citizenship and security.
The contributors to the Routledge Handbook of Asian Borderlands highlight some of these processes taking place at the fringe of the state. Over the last decade, the world has increasingly grappled with the complex linkages emerging between efforts to combat climate change and to protect human rights around the world. Henry Clay: The Essential American. Random House. One and Inseparable: Daniel Webster and the Union. Harvard UP. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War. Tise, Proslavery.
In The Confederacy edited by Richard N. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, Adams, Weld, Theodore Dwight. New York: A. Knopf, In History Teacher , Vol. Encyclopedia of Third Parties in America , p. Abolitionist Movement , p. Goen, "Broken churches, broken nation: Regional religion and North-south alienation in Antebellum America. Faust , pp.
Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad. The difference relates to the residence of a few hundred slaves in the Northern states or in the territories. Horace Greeley: Champion of American Freedom. NYU Press. Barney, ed. Sioussat, "Tennessee, the Compromise of , and the Nashville Convention. Nash, "William Parker and the Christiana Riot.
Woodworth; Kenneth J. Winkle Atlas of the Civil War. Oxford UP. Almanac of American Military History. Tariff History of the United States Marais des Cygnes Massacre site , June Retrieved December 28, Guelzo, Lincoln and Douglas: The debates that defined America Merton Coulter, Georgia: a short history , ch. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, Current , pp. Neff, Justice in blue and gray: a legal history of the Civil War , p. Jewett and John O. Allen, Slavery in the South: a state-by-state history , p. Jones, Jr. Further information: American Civil War bibliography. Adams, Gretchen A. Weld, Theodore Dwight.
Allen, W. Blake, William O. Columbus, Ohio: H. Miller, Retrieved April 3, Historical encyclopedia of Illinois. Chicago: Munsell Publishing Company, Retrieved April 1, Bowman, John S. Briley, Ronald F. Washington, D. Crowther, Edward R. Heidler and Jeanne T. New York: W. Davis, Thomas J. Abolitionist Movement. Dowdey, Clifford. The Virginia Dynasties. Du Bois, W. Gabriel's Conspiracy and the Election of In Journal of Southern History Vol.
Engs, Robert Francis. Slavery during the Civil War. Faust, Patricia L. DeBow's Review. Foner, Philip Sheldon and Robert J. Retrieved May 29, Gara, Larry. Heidler, David S. Heidler, eds. Norton, Kiefer, Joseph Warren. Retrieved March 8, Klein, Maury. New York: Alfred A. Kolchin, Peter. Levy, Andrew. Lepore, Jill. Knopf, , Long, E. Malone, Dumas. Boston: Little Brown and Company, McCartney, Martha W.
Retrieved May 28, McPherson, James M. Oxford History of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, Miller, Randall M. Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery. New York; London: Greenwood, Miller, William Lee. Morris, Richard B. Encyclopedia of American History 7th edn Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union 8 vols — New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, — Pogue, Dennis J.
In Historic Alexandria Quarterly. Office of Historic Alexandria Virginia. Retrieved January 3, Potter, David M. New York: Harper Perennial, reprint First published New York, Harper Colophon, Rubin, Louis, D. Russell, John Henderson. Santoro, Nicholas. The Almanac Of American History. New York: Putnam, Schott, Thomas E. Cornerstone Speech. Stroud, George M. Swanberg, W. Tise, Larry E. Varon, Elizabeth R. Wagner, Margaret E. Gallagher, and Paul Finkelman. First published Watkins, Jr. Wilson, Henry. American Civil War.
Origins Issues. Susan B. Combatants Theaters Campaigns Battles States. Army Navy Marine Corps. Involvement by state or territory. See also: Chronology of military events in the American Civil War. Johnston J. Smith Stuart Taylor Wheeler. Reconstruction amendments 13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment. Taney Monument Robert E.
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After earlier laws in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Connecticut Colony limit slavery to some extent, a law in the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations clearly limits bond service to no more than 10 years or no later than a person attaining the age of John Casor of Northampton County is the first Virginian to be judicially confirmed as a slave for life other than for violation of the law.
About 2, of the 40, inhabitants of colonial Virginia are imported slaves. White indentured servants working for five years before their release are three times as numerous and provide much of the hard labor. A slave insurrection in New York City causes significant property damage and results in severe punishment or execution of the rebels. Non-slaveholding farmers in Virginia persuade the Virginia General Assembly to discuss a prohibition of slavery or a ban on importing slaves. In response, the assembly raises the tariff on slaves to five pounds, which about equals the full price of an indenture, so as not to make importation of slaves as initially attractive or preferable to a mere indenture for a term of years.
In South Carolina , the Stono Rebellion becomes the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies, with 25 white people and 35 to 50 black people killed. Another insurrection of slaves in New York City causes significant property damage; slaves are severely punished or executed. Quakers , led by James Pemberton and others including Benjamin Rush , organize the first anti-slavery society in the colonies, the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery , in Philadelphia. The United States Declaration of Independence declares "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
The Republic of Vermont , an independent country at the time, prohibits slavery in its constitution. The Virginia legislature passes a law, with Thomas Jefferson 's support and probably authorship, that bans importing slaves into Virginia. It is the first state to ban the slave trade, and all other states eventually follow suit.
A gradual emancipation law is adopted in Pennsylvania. Virginia liberalizes its very strict law preventing manumission ; under the new law, a master may emancipate slaves in his will or by deed. The New Hampshire Constitution says children will be born free, but some slavery persists until the s. Rhode Island and Connecticut pass laws providing for gradual emancipation of slaves.
George Washington writes: "There is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a plan adopted for the abolition of it [slavery]. July Under the Articles of Confederation , the Continental Congress passes the Northwest Ordinance to govern the frontier territory north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania, which includes the future states of Illinois , Indiana , Michigan , Ohio , Wisconsin and Minnesota.
In the ordinance, Congress prohibits slavery and involuntary servitude in the Northwest Territory and requires the return of fugitive slaves captured in the territory to their owners. The law no longer applies as soon as the territories become states. In the following years, anti-slavery Northerners cite the ordinance many times as precedent for the limitation, if not the abolition, of slavery in the United States. Despite the terms of the ordinance, Southern-born settlers try and fail to pass laws to allow slavery in Indiana and Illinois.
The Constitutional Convention drafts the new United States Constitution with many compromises between supporters and opponents of slavery, including the Three-Fifths Compromise , which increases legislative representation in the House of Representatives and Electoral College by counting each slave as three-fifths of a person Article I, Section 2. Additionally, the passage of any law that would prohibit the importation of slaves is forbidden for 20 years Article I, Section 9 and the return of slaves who escape to free states is required Article IV, Section 2.
August 7: Congress re-adopts the Northwest Ordinance under the Constitution. The total U. Vermont is admitted to the Union as a free state. He will perform the largest manumission of slaves in U. Kentucky drafts a constitution permitting slavery and is admitted to the Union. Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act of , based on Article IV Section 2 of the Constitution and guaranteeing a slaveholder's right to recover an escaped slave. The demand for slave labor increases with the resulting increase in cotton production.
In the Slave Trade Act of Congress prohibits ships from engaging in the international slave trade. Tennessee is admitted to the Union as a slave state. Most other states reject the Resolutions, which claim that the states can negate federal laws that go beyond the federal government's limited powers. In the second Kentucky resolution of November , the Kentucky legislature says the remedy for an unconstitutional act is "nullification".
New York enacts a law that gradually abolishes slavery. It declared children of slaves born after July 4, , to be legally free, but the children had to serve an extended period of indentured servitude: to the age of 28 for males and to 25 for females. Slaves born before that date were redefined as indentured servants but essentially continued as slaves for life. His will frees the slaves that he owns outright upon the death of his wife, Martha.
They are freed by Martha in , about 18 months before her death.